Amazon’s GovCloud provides a specialized region within Amazon’s global footprint of datacenters. These are hosted within the United States, and provide a subset of the full Amazon cloud functionality.
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However, hosting within GovCloud is not the whole story. Beyond this, you’ll want to implement FedRAMP compliant procedures & policies.
Are these policies new? As a seasoned systems administrator of Unix & Linux networks, you’ll likely find these very familiar best practices. What they do however, is formalize those into a set of procedures for testing compliance. And that’s a good thing.
1. Use a bastion box
A bastion box is a single point of entry for all your SSH activity. Instead of allowing SSH access to any of your servers from *anywhere* on the internet, you limit it to one box. This box is hardened with multi-factor authentication for security, only opens port 22, monitors & logs access, and funnels movement to all your other boxes. Thus you gain a virtual perimeter that you’re already familiar with in more traditional firewall setups.
2. Monitor & scan for vulnerabilities
Monitoring, scanning & logging are all key facilities for security management. Regular patch management of each of your servers, is essential to protect from newly discovered vulnerabilities. FedRAMP also requires scanning by tools such as Nessus or Retina.
Also centralizing your authorization, access & error logs allows easy monitoring & alerting of threats & improper access attempts.
3. Policy of least privilege
The policy of least privilege is an old friend in computing & managing unix systems. It means first to eliminate all privileges (default to none) and then grant only those a user requires to do his or her work.
In Amazon it means not using the root account for provisioning infrastructure, it means a clear separation of dev, test & production environments. It limits who can access production & especially make changes there. It limits who can see sensitive data.
As well, you’ll use Access Control Lists (ACL’s) and security groups to control which servers can reach which other servers, whom on the internet can touch specific servers & ports, and so forth. These are the Amazon Cloud equivalent of perimeter security you may be familiar with in more traditional firewalls.
4. Encrypt your data
If you want to be truly secure, you’ll want to encrypt your data at rest. You can do this by using encrypted filesystems in Linux. That way data is in a digital envelope, even on disk. Only when data is read into memory is it unencrypted. This provides additional insurance, because your EBS snapshots, backups & so forth are all hidden from prying eyes.
Amazon’s GovCloud provides access to a subset of their cloud offerings including EC2 their elastic compute cloud virtual servers, EBS the elastic block storage their own storage area network, S3 for file storage, VPC, IAM, RDS, Elasticache & Redshift.
FedRAMP formalizes what good systems administrators do already. Secure systems, deliver reliability & high availability & protect from unauthorized entry.