What does your dream job look like?

via GIPHY

I see this question a lot because I’m often on the lookout for new opportunities. So I speak with a lot of recruiters, hiring managers and CTOs. It’s an interesting question.

Join 38,000 others and follow Sean Hull on twitter @hullsean.

When I think about it, there are a few ways to break it down. Here’s what differentiates firms for me.

1. What pace are you looking for?

Is the work-life balance the most important thing for you? That is do you want to leave at 5pm and not be oncall nights and weekends?

Alternatively are you after the fast-paced, always on, blistering hockey stick growth startup phase? That’s also exciting, although it may make work-life balance tougher.

Not to say the world is divided up into only two types, I do think this is an interesting way to divide up the world.

Related: Why I don’t work with recruiters

2. What engineering culture do you like?

Do you prefer an engineering organization, that is doing things cleanly, concisely, with truly best practices and high code quality, though perhaps with greater process control?

Or would you prefer more cowboy style, with less process and able to move quickly and get things out the door?

Related: How to hack job search?

3. What type of teams do you enjoy?

In some organizations that are smaller, you get a chance to wear a lot of hats. You aren’t so specialized because there are fewer total team members. For example there may not be one person devoted to the database work, and one developer takes on that responsibility. While there is not devops team, another developer automates infrastructure.

Alternatively do you prefer more clearly defined job roles? That may be a larger org that has many more engineers. In that way you can own your own tiny slice, and focus just on that skillset or tool.

Both are valid of course, but they may be different types of orgs or companies at different stages in their development.

Related: Questions to ask for a devops interview

4. What’s your overall motivation?

This is an interesting question. For me personally, I prefer to have the biggest business impact. If I can come into an organization and raise the bar, even if the bar wasn’t high to begin with, that is very satisfying. If I don’t get to use the coolest wiz-bang technologies that’s ok with me.

Alternatively there are some organizations that are facing much more challenging problems. These tend to be very hard technical problems, where the bar is already quite high. In those you may be surrounded by very talented engineers indeed, and the baseline for entry is already quite high.

Again both are valid, just a matter of what type of environment you thrive in.

Related: How to hire a developer that doesn’t suck?

Get more. Grab our exclusive monthly Scalable Startups. We share tips and special content. Our latest Why I don’t work with recruiters

How to find consulting clients?

via GIPHY

I get asked this question by people a lot. Whenever I attend conferences, meetups, or social events. How do you *do* consulting? I’d love to be doing that, how do I get there?

Join 38,000 others and follow Sean Hull on twitter @hullsean.

From what I can tell, the most important factor is being hungry. How do you teach that? If you’re fiercely independent to begin with, you may be willing to have a roomate, or do without luxury for a while, in order to build up your nest egg. To be sure you need some cushion to get started.

But you also need customers. Where the heck do you find them? Here are some tips…

1. What not to do?

The first thing you’ll find is that recruiters seem to have a lot of “customers”. Maybe I can just go that route. Sure, but just remember, those are not *your* customers. Your customer is the recruiting company. They have the relationship.

Why does this matter? Because you can’t build a business this way. You are effectively working as an employee of the recruiting company. Nothing wrong with it, but it’s not an entrepreneurial path. You don’t really have responsibility nor control over the full lifecycle of your business.

So again I would summarize, don’t use “hire a freelancer” sites.

And don’t use consulting headshops or recruiters.

Related: When you’re hired to solve a people problem

2. Do socialize

So how then? Well you need to first *peer* with economic buyers. What do I mean by that? Well if you go to technical conferences, that’s fine, but your peers are other engineers. These are not buyers. At best you may get a weak referral.

Hiring managers, CTOs, directors of operations, all will attend events where their peers will be found. If you want to be a professional services consultant, these folks are whom you need to socialize with.

First, experiment. Go to a lot of different types of events, meetups, small single track conferences. And ask where others go? What’s on their radar? Also introduce people to eachother. This may sound counterintuitive, but it’s important. Don’t have an agenda of “I’m looking for a job” but rather, I have a lot to offer.

Network by interviewing. This may appear to be an odd one, but it sometimes works. Take any interviews you can. Discuss how you solve problems. Learn by failing a few. If you talk to ten firms that have a seat to fill, one of them may go the consulting route, even though that wasn’t their original thought.

Talk to recruiters. It may sounds at odds with what I said above, but it can be very valuable. Recruiters have their finger on the pulse. Even if their not physicians, they can measure the pulse. So too they may not know redshift from Oracle, but they’re hearing what the industry is looking for. They have a great perspective to share.

Go to non-peer events. Expand your horizons. Surprise yourself with who might attend other events. Tell your story. In the process, ask others where they spend time.

Ping all the people. Yes keep in touch with folks. You may create a newsletter to help with this. See below.

Keep the pipeline warm. Once you get a gig, you may quickly give up the socializing because you just want to do the work. But this will fail in the long term. You have to like the socializing and keep doing it. Even while you have an engagement or two going.

Always *GET* cards. Giving them is fine, but be sure to get the contact of the other person. 99% will not followup. That’s your job!

Related: When clients don’t pay

3. Build your reputation

When people search your name, they should find you. On social networks like Linkedin, github, twitter, google plus, Slideshare, StackOverflow etc. Create profiles on all of these. Link them back to your professional site.

You *do* have a professional site right? If not go get a domain right now. devopsguru.io, backenddeveloper.guru, whatever! The domain doesn’t matter that much, most traffic will come from google, and it won’t be going to your homepage anyway.

Speak at non-peer events & conferences. Lunch & learns. Co-working spaces, incubators. These all have events, they’re all looking for experts. You may also apply to CFP’s regularly. Hey you might even get some conference passes out of it!

As I also mentioned above, a newsletter is also a good idea. Add every single person you meet in your professional context. It gives you something else to talk about as you are socializing. 🙂

Related: Why i ask for a deposit

4. Positioning

This one is counterintuitive. Why can’t I just do the thing I love.

Well sure maybe you can. But finding an underserved niche is a fast track to success. To my mind it’s crucial. So find out what is in demand. I know you’ve been talking to recruiters, right?

So yes pay attention to the wind. And pivot as necessary. Keep reading and stay up to date on new tech.

Related: Can progress reports help your engagements succeed?

5. What you might find

Don’t expect to get in at large companies like google & facebook, or with defense contractors. There’s a terrible amount of bearocracy, and you would need a larger team to become an approved vendor. Also many of these larger well organized firms already have tons of talent.

You’re better suited to less organized, or newer companies. Because you want to be able to raise the bar for them. Better you start where the bar is a bit lower.

Examples…

o small early stage startups

These folks have some money, but they are still small so they may not need a fullsize engineering organization. They also need things done yesterday. So they are ripe with opportunities.

o medium size startups

Same as above. But they may be having trouble finding your skills. Because you’ve found that niche, right?

o greenfield

Startups building an mvp, where the skies the limit. You have the opportunity to build out the first gen. Go for it!

o second generation & legacy

Once a startup has seen it’s first round of developers leave, they may be in a spot, where the business is great, but the product needs lifting. You’re looking at a quote-unquote legacy application, and you need to use your skills to tune, troubleshoot, and identify technical debt.

Related: Why do people leave consulting?

Get more. Grab our exclusive monthly Scalable Startups. We share tips and special content. Our latest Why I don’t work with recruiters

How organizations can move faster with devops – a16z Sonal Chokshi interviews Nicole Forsgren & Jez Humble

via GIPHY

We hear a lot about devops these days, and the promise is temendous. It originally evolved out of Agile operations. But how to get those benefits at *my* organization?

Join 38,000 others and follow Sean Hull on twitter @hullsean.

How do we become a high performing organization, to move faster and build more secure and resilient systems? That’s the $64,000 question!

A16Z strikes again! Andreeson Horowitz’s epic podcast hosts world class guests around all sorts of startup & new technology topics. This week they interview Jez Humble and Nicole Forsgren. They run Dora which is DevOps Research and Assessment, which shows organizations just how to get the advantages of devops in the real world.

Technology does not drive organizational performance

Check out section 16:04 in the podcast…


“the point of distinction comes from how you tie process and culture together technology through devops”

It’s the classic Amazon model. They’re running hundreds of experiments in production at any one time!

Related: The 4 letter word dividing dev and ops

Day one is short, day two is long

The first interesting quote that caught my attention was at 4:40…


“Day one is when we create all of these systems. Day two is when we deploy to production. We have to deploy and maintain forever and ever and ever. We hope that day two is really long.”

As a long time op, this really really resonates for me. Brownfield deployments, which have already seen a wave of developers finish, and leave, and trying to manage that. Not easy!

Related: Why generalists are better at scaling the web

Mainframes of Kubernetes?

What about tooling? Is that important? Here’s what Jez has to say. Jump to 29:30…


“Implementing those technologies does *not* give you those outcomes. You can achieve those results with Mainframes. Equally you can use Kubernetes, Docker and microservices and not achieve those outcomes.”

Related: Is Amazon too big to fail?

Reducing Friction

Fast forward to timecode 28:45…


“Conways Law: Organizations which design systems are constrained to produce designs that are copies of the communication structures of these organizations.”

ie your software code looks like the shape of organization itself, and how we communicate. Super interesting. 🙂

Related: 6 devops interview questions

Get more. Grab our exclusive monthly Scalable Startups. We share tips and special content. Our latest Why I don’t work with recruiters

How do we test performance in a microservices world?

via GIPHY

I recently ran across this interesting question on a technology forum.

“I’m an engineering team lead at a startup in NYC. Our app is written in Ruby on Rails and hosted on Heroku. We use metrics such as the built-in metrics on Heroku, as well as New Relic for performance monitoring. This summer, we’re expecting a large influx of traffic from a new partnership and would like to have confidence that our system can handle the load.”

“I’ve tried to wrap my head around different types of performance/load testing tools like JMeter, Blazemeter, and others. Additionally, I’ve experimented with scripts which have grown more complex and I’m following rabbit holes of functionality within JMeter (such as loading a CSV file for dynamic user login, and using response data in subsequent requests, etc.). Ultimately, I feel this might be best left to consultants or experts who could be far more experienced and also provide our organization an opportunity to learn from them on key concepts and best practices.”

Join 38,000 others and follow Sean Hull on twitter @hullsean.

Here’s my point by point response.

I’ve been doing performance tuning since the old dot-com days.

It used to be you point a loadrunner type tool at your webpage and let it run. Then watch the load, memory & disk on your webserver or database. Before long you’d find some bottlenecks. Shortage of resources (memory, cpu, disk I/O) or slow queries were often the culprit. Optimizing queries, and ripping out those pesky ORMs usually did the trick.

Related: Why generalists are better at scaling the web

Today things are quite a bit more complicated. Yes jmeter & blazemeter are great tools. You might also get newrelic installed on your web nodes. This will give you instrumentation on where your app spends time. However it may still not be easy. With microservices, you have the docker container & orchestration layer to consider. In the AWS environment you can have bottlenecks on disk I/O where provisioned IOPS can help. But instance size also impacts network interfaces in the weird world of multi-tenant. So there’s that too!

Related: 5 things toxic to scalability

What’s more a lot of frameworks are starting to steer back towards ORMs again. Sadly this is not a good trend. On the flip side if you’re using RDS, your default MySQL or postgres settings may be decent. And newer versions of MySQL are getting some damn fancy & performant indexes. So there’s lots of improvement there.

Related: Anatomy of a performance review

There is also the question of simulating real users. What is a real user? What is an ACTIVE user? These are questions that may seem obvious, although I’ve worked at firms where engineering, product, sales & biz-dev all had different answers. But lets say you’ve answered that. Does are load test simply login the user? Or do they use a popular section of the site? Or how about an unpopular section of the site? Often we are guessing what “real world” users do and how they use our app.

Get more. Grab our exclusive monthly Scalable Startups. We share tips and special content. Our latest Why I don’t work with recruiters

What makes a highly valued docker expert?

via GIPHY

What exactly do we need to know about to manage docker effectively? What are the main pain points?

Join 38,000 others and follow Sean Hull on twitter @hullsean.

The basics aren’t tough. You need to know the anatomy of a Dockerfile, and how to setup a docker-compose.yml to ease the headache of docker run. You also should know how to manage docker images, and us docker ps to find out what’s currently running. And get an interactive shell (docker exec -it imageid). You’ll also make friends with inspect. But what else?

1. Manage image bloat

Docker images can get quite large. Even as you try to pair them down they can grow. Why is this?

Turns out the architecture of docker means as you add more stuff, it creates more “layers”. So even as you delete files, the lower or earlier layers still contain your files.

One option, during a package install you can do this:

RUN apt-get update && apt-get install -y mypkg && rm -rf /var/lib/apt/lists/*

This will immediately cleanup the crap that apt-get built from, without it ever becoming permanent in that layer. Cool! As long as you use “&&” it is part of that same RUN command, and thus part of that same layer.

Another option is you can flatten a big image. Something like this should work:

$ docker export 0453814a47b3 | docker import – newimage

Related: 30 questions to ask a serverless fanboy

2. Orchestrate

Running docker containers on dev is great, and it can be a fast and easy way to get things running. Plus it can work across dev environments well, so it solves a lot of problems.

But what about when you want to get those containers up into the cloud? That’s where orchestration comes in. At the moment you can use docker’s own swarm or choose fleet or mesos.

But the biggest players seem to be kubernetes & ECS. The former of course is what all the cool kids in town are using, and couple it with Helm package manager, it becomes very manageable system. Get your pods, services, volumes, replicasets & deployments ready to go!

On the other hand Amazon is pushing ahead with it’s Elastic Container Service, which is native to AWS, and not open source. It works well, allowing you to apply a json manifest to create a task. Then just as with kubernetes you create a “service” to run one or more copies of that. Think of the task as a docker-compose file. It’s in json, but it basically specifies the same types of things. Entrypoint, ports, base image, environment etc.

For those wanting to go multi-cloud, kubernetes certainly has an appeal. But amazon is on the attack. They have announced a service to further ease container deployments. Dubbed Amazon Fargate. Remember how Lambda allowed you to just deploy your *code* into the cloud, and let amazon worry about the rest? Imaging you can do that with containers, and that’s what Fargate is.

Check out what Krish has to say – Why Kubernetes should be scared of AWS

Related: What’s the luckiest thing that’s happened in your career?

3. Registries & Deployment

There are a few different options for where to store those docker images.

One choice is dockerhub. It’s not feature rich, but it does the job. There is also Quay.io. Alternatively you can run your own registry. It’s as easy as:

$ docker run -d -p 5000:5000 registry:2

Of course if you’re running your own registry, now you need to manage that, and think about it’s uptime, and dependability to your deployment pipeline.

If you’re using ECS, you’ll be able to use ECR which is a private docker registry that comes with your AWS account. I think you can use this, even if you’re not on ECS. The login process is a little weird.

Once you have those pieces in place, you can do some fun things. Your jenkins deploy pipeline can use docker containers for testing, to spinup a copy of your app just to run some unittests, or it can build your images, and push them to your registry, for later use in ECS tasks or Kubernetes manifests. Awesome sauce!

Related: Is Amazon Web Services too complex for small dev teams?

Get more. Grab our exclusive monthly Scalable Startups. We share tips and special content. Our latest Why I don’t work with recruiters

Curve ball technology questions and solutions

via GIPHY

I’ve been on the phone with a lot of companies lately. You might be surprised that some of the challenges firms struggle with in the cloud, are repeated over and over.

Join 38,000 others and follow Sean Hull on twitter @hullsean.

I put together some of the most common ones I’ve heard, and my thoughts on the right solution.

1. How would you load test?

Here’s an interesting question. Do you talk about tools? How do you approach the problem?

The first thing I talk about is simulating real users. If your site normally has 1000 active users, how will it behave when it has 5000, 10,000, 100,000 or 1million? We can simulate this by using a load testing tool, and monitoring the infrastructure and database during that test.

But how accurate are those tests? What do active users do? Login to the site? Edit and change some data? Where do active users spend most of their time? Are there some areas of the site that are busier than others? What about some dark corner of the site or product that gets less use, but is also less tuned? Suddenly a few users decide that want that feature, and performance slides!

Real world usage patterns are unpredictable. There is as much art as science to this type of load testing.

Related: 30 questions to ask a serverless fanboy

2. Why is Amazon S3’s 99.999999999% promise *not* enough??

I’ve heard people say before that S3 is extremely reliable. But is it?

According to their SLA, the durability guarantee is 11 nines. What does this mean? Durability is confidence that a file is saved. That you will not lose it. It’s on storage, and that storage has redundant copies. Great. You can be confident you will never lose a file.

What about uptime? That SLA is 99.99% or an hour a month. Surprise! That amounts to an hour of DOWNTIME per month. And if your product fails when S3 files are missing, guess what, your business is down for an hour a month.

That’s actually quite a *lot* of downtime.

Solution: You better be doing cross-region replication. You have the tools and the cloud, now get to work!

Related: What’s the luckiest thing that’s happened in your career?

3. Why is continuous integration not about tools?

I hear a lot of talk about continuous integration. I’ve even seen it as a line item on a todo list I was handed. Hmmm…

I asked the manager, “so it says here setup CI/CD. Are there already unit tests written? What about integration tests?” Turns out the team is not yet on board with writing tests. I gently explain that automated builds are not going to get very far without tests to run. 🙂

CI/CD requires the team to be on-board. It’s first a cultural change in how you develop code.

It means more regular code checkins. It means every engineer promises not to break the build.

It means write enough tests for good code coverage.

Related: How I use progress reports to achieve consulting success

4. What can VPC peering do for you?

Amazon has made VPC peering a lot easier. But what the heck is it?

In the world of cloud networking, everything is virtual. You have VPCs and inside those you have public and private subnets. What if you have multiple AWS accounts? VPC peering can allow you to connect backend private subnets, without going across the public internet at all.

As security becomes front & center for more businesses, this can be a huge win.

What’s more it’s easier now because it is semi managed by AWS.

Related: Is upgrading Amazon RDS like a sh*t storm that will not end?

5. Why go with a New York based resource?

As more and more small startups put together teams to build their MVP, the offshore market has never been hotter. And there are very talented engineers in faraway places, from Eastern Europe, to India and China. And South America too.

At ⅓ to ¼ the price, why hire US based people? Well one reason might be compliance. If you have sensitive data, that must be handled by US nationals, that might be one reason.

Why New York based? Well there is the value of being face-to-face and working side by side with teams. It may also ease the language barrier & communication. And timezone challenges sometimes make communication difficult.

And lastly ownership. With resources that are focused solely on you, and for which you are a big customer, you’re likely to get more personalized focused attention.

Related: Is Amazon Web Services too complex for small dev teams?

6. What are some common antipatterns in the cloud

Antipatterns are interesting. Because you see them regularly, and yet they are the *wrong* way to solve a problem, either they’re slower, or there is a better more reliable way to solve it.

o Using EFS Amazon’s NFS solution, instead of putting assets in S3.

It might help you avoid rewriting code, but in the end S3 is definitely the way to go.

o Hardcoded IPs in security group rules instead of naming a group.

Yes I’ve seen this. If you specify each webserver individually, what happens when you autoscale? Answer, the new nodes break! The solution is to put all the webservers in a group, and then add a security group rule allowing access from that group. Voila!

o Passing credentials around instead of using AWS instance level roles

Credentials are the bane of applications. You hardcode them and things break later. Or they create a vulnerability that you forget about. That’s why AWS invented roles. But did you know a server *itself* can have a role? That means that server and any software running on it, has permissions to certain APIs within the amazon universe. You can change a servers roles or it’s underlying policies, while the server is still running. No restart required!

Implement CI/CD as a task item

Don’t forget culture & process are the big hurdles. Installing a tool is easy. Getting everyone using it everyday is the challenge!

Reducing and managing docker image bloat

As you change your docker images, you add layers. Even as you delete things, the total image size only grows! Seems counterintuitive. What’s more when you do all that work with yum or apt-get those packages stay lying around. One way is to install packages and then cleanup all in one command. Another way is to export and import an finished image.

ssh-ing into servers or giving devs kubectl

Old habits die hard! I was watching Kelsey Hightower’s keynote at KubCon. He made some great points about kubernetes. If you give all the devs kubectl, then it’s kind of like allowing everybody to SSH into the boxes. It’s not the way to do it!

Related: Which tech do startups use most?

Get more. Grab our exclusive monthly Scalable Startups. We share tips and special content. Our latest Why I don’t work with recruiters

I’m speaking at Techhub on Wednesday – stop by!

This wednesday I’ll be giving a talk at the newly launched New York outpost of TechHub. The talk is entitled Intro to building a web/mobile app on AWS

Join 38,000 others and follow Sean Hull on twitter @hullsean.

Although I focus on Amazon Web Services as the default cloud, the concepts could apply equally to GCP or Azure.

Want to get a head start? Download the slide deck here.

1. A short history of application hosting

Just to give some context, I’ll start by a quick walk through compute history. From the server cabinet in the back office, to the early managed hosting providers and then on to today’s modern cloud offerings, I’ll explain how we got here.

Related: 30 questions to ask a serverless fanboy

2. What the heck is serverless?

With that new context in mind, I’ll talk about that evolution one step further, to managed functions. What’s that you ask? Just hand over your code to the cloud, and let them handle running the servers, provisioning load balancers, and reacting to your customers when they hit the endpoint.

Related: What’s the luckiest thing that’s happened in your career?

3. Introducing a reference architecture

No presentation is complete without a proper diagram. My reference architecture makes use of Amazon’s many cloud services, including API endpoint, cognito for user authentication, lambda for serverless functions, dynamodb to store state information, S3 for storing objects, CloudFront for the edge caching network, and Route53 for the domain name.

Related: Ben Horowitz’s choice wisdom for startup entrepreneurs

4. Architecture walkthrough

Each of the components I mention above, requires some explanation. I’ll talk about how to setup a serverless project, how to define and manage your API endpoint. This is where users first touch your application. I’ll introduce user authentication with Amazon’s own service or a third party like OneLogin or Auth0. From there you’ll see how Amazon’s nosql database Dynamodb works, and how you can store your original & edited images in S3. And no site would be complete without an edge cache, and we’ll have that setup too. Then store your domain name in Route53 and point it to your API.

Voila site complete!

Related: How I use progress reports to achieve consulting success

5. About Sean Hull

Of course I’ll also talk a bit about myself. Mostly what I’m doing these days, and the types of boutique consulting services I offer.

I’ll also encourage everyone to Signup for my monthly newsletter. I discuss cloud, startup & innovation topics once a month.

It’s a great way to keep in touch!

Related: Which tech do startups use most?

Get more. Grab our exclusive monthly Scalable Startups. We share tips and special content. Our latest Why I don’t work with recruiters

Surprising wisdom – thoughts on Ben Horowitz’s new startup tale

I took a recent flight to San Francisco to have meetings with a few startups. Naturally I needed some good reading to immerse myself in for the flight over and back.

Join 38,000 others and follow Sean Hull on twitter @hullsean.

I have to admit, though I’m not a management consultant, I do pickup the big ones from time to time. Good to Great, How to Make Friends & Influence People, The Lean Startup, Innovators Dillemma & Who Moved My Cheese among my favorites.

I’d seen Ben Horowitz’s book “The Hard Thing about Hard Things” in the news. But I also really love the a16z podcast, and although I don’t know a ton about the VC business, I thought it would be a good read.

Boy is that an understatement! The book is so readable & so accessible, there are nuggets of value in there for anyone in the startup world, or building their career, CEO or not!

On the efficient market hypothesis

I had always assumed Adam Smith’s invisible hand was a good theory, almost as scripture. So to see a different perspective on this, and one backed up by real experience. That’s cool.


“No, markets weren’t “efficient” at finding the truth; they were just very efficient at converging on a conclusion — often the wrong conclusion”. p52

What’s more for investors out there, it means good old fashioned investigative work can still turn up gems, that are worth investing in. Word to the wise.

Related: What I learned from David Maister’s book on trust & advising clients.

Questions for interviews

Add this one to your list of great interview questions. And if you’re being interviewed, why not volunteer this as an action plan. Great advice!


“What will you do in your first month on the job?” p122

Related: A review of Eli Pariser’s insightful book The Filter Bubble

On the Freaky Friday management technique

Freaky Friday was a movie way back in the 80’s. In it a mother & daughter are at each others throats, frustrated with the each other. They end up switching places, and quickly learn to sympathize with the other’s plight in life.

Horowitz decided to put this method to use between two of his managers. Pretty ingenious.

“After just one week walking in the other’s moccasins, both executives quickly diagnosed the core issues causing the conflict. They then swiftly acted to implement a simple set of processes that cleared up the combat and got the teams working harmoniously. p253

Related: A review of the Power of Habit by Charles Duhigg

On ancient wisdom & hard choices

“In life, everybody faces choices between doing what’s popular, easy, and wrong versus doing what’s lonely, difficult, and right.” p212

Every time you make the hard, correct decision you become a bit more courageous and every time you make the easy, wrong decision you become a bit more cowardly. p213

Boy, can I relate to these bits of wisdom. Running my own business all these years, it hasn’t been easy. There have been ups and downs, and times when people told me to take a different road. But that courage. When you find it, it can be real fuel for you moving forward.

Related: Can a growth mindset help you recover from setbacks – Carol Dweck

On instincts


I realized that embracing the unusual parts of my background would be the key to making it through. It would be those things that would give me unique perspectives and approaches to the business. p276

When I work with entrepreneurs today, this is the main thing that I try to convey. Embrace your weirdness, your background, your instinct. p276

I hadn’t really thought of this, and it’s an interesting point. It may be one of the reasons why customers hire me, that I hadn’t realized. Certainly I can give an original viewpoint. But I think I will try to put this to work in the future.

Related: Startup of You – Reid Hoffman’s great book on career growth

On publicity in ventura capital

This is a curious & fascinating point about the history of venture capital. Ripe for disruption indeed!

Marc discovered that the original venture capital firms in the late 1940s and early ’50s were modeled after the original investment banks such as J.P. Morgan and Rothschild. Those banks also did not do PR for a very specific reason: The banks funded wars—and sometimes both sides of the same war—so publicity was not a good idea. p271

Related: A review of Nicholas Carr’s book The Big Switch – Rewiring the world from Edison to Google

On the Andreesen Horowitz business model

This is pretty cool. Apparently the A16Z business model built a VC firm by helping startup founders in disruptive ways.

We decided to systematize and professionalize the network. p269

They modeled the firm after Michael Ovitz’s Creative Artists Agency. They had managed to “shift the economics of the industry from the corporations to the talent” p270

Related: Deborah Tannen offers us insights on conversation & interruption across the sexes

On forecasting

I guess I instinctively understood this one, but it’s interesting to see it in black and white like that.


You should expect experienced people to be able to forecast their results more accurately than junior people. p250

Related: 5 things I learned from Frans Johansson about innovation from his book Medici Effect

On checking yourself

Keep yourself honest, ask this question.

“It’s a good idea to ask, “What am I not doing?” p52

Related: 5 things I learned from Gif Constable in his book Talking to Humans

Get more. Grab our exclusive monthly Scalable Startups. We share tips and special content. Our latest Why I don’t work with recruiters

6 Devops interview questions

via GIPHY

Devops is in serious demand these days. At every meetup or tech event I attend, I hear a recruiter or startup founder talking about it. It seems everyone wants to see benefits of talented operations brought to their business.

Join 37,000 others and follow Sean Hull on twitter @hullsean.

That said the skill set is very broad, which explains why there aren’t more devs picking up the batton.





I thought it would be helpful to put together a list of interview questions. There are certainly others, but here’s what I came up with.

1. Explain the gitflow release process

As a devops engineer you should have a good foundation about software delivery. With that you should understand git very well, especially the standard workflow.

Although there are other methods to manage code, one solid & proven method is gitflow. In a nutshell you have two main branches, development & master. Developers checkout a new branch to add a feature, and push it back to development branch. Your stage server can be built automatically off of this branch.

Periodically you will want to release a new version of the software. For this you merge development to master. UAT is then built automatically off of the master branch. When acceptance testing is done, you deploy off of master to production. Hence the saying always ship trunk.

Bonus points if you know that hotfixes are done directly off the master branch & pushed straight out that way.

Related: 8 questions to ask an AWS expert

2. How do you provision resources?

There are a lot of tools in the devops toolbox these days. One that is great at provisioning resources is Terraform. With it you can specify in declarative code everything your application will need to run in the cloud. From IAM users, roles & groups, dynamodb tables, rds instances, VPCs & subnets, security groups, ec2 instances, ebs volumes, S3 buckets and more.

You may also choose to use CloudFormation of course, but in my experience terraform is more polished. What’s more it supports multi-cloud. Want to deploy in GCP or Azure, just port your templates & you’re up and running in no time.

It takes some time to get used to the new workflow of building things in terraform rather than at the AWS cli or dashboard, but once you do you’ll see benefits right away. You gain all the advantages of versioning code we see with other software development. Want to rollback, no problem. Want to do unit tests against your infrastructure? You can do that too!

Related: Does a 4-letter-word divide dev & ops?

3. How do you configure servers?

The four big choices for configuration management these days are Ansible, Salt, Chef & Puppet. For my money Ansible has some nice advantages.

First it doesn’t require an agent. As long as you have SSH access to your box, you can manage it with Ansible. Plus your existing shell scripts are pretty easy to port to playbooks. Ansible also does not require a server to house your playbooks. Simply keep them in your git repository, and checkout to your desktop. Then run ansible-playbook on the yaml file. Voila, server configuration!

Related: How to hire a developer that doesn’t suck

4. What does testing enable?

Unit testing & integration testing are super import parts of continuous integration. As you automate your tests, you formalize how your site & code should behave. That way when you automate the deployment, you can also automate the test process. Let the software do the drudgework of making sure a new feature hasn’t broken anything on the site.

As you automate more tests, you accelerate the software development process, because you’re doing less and less manually. That means being more agile, and makes the business more nimble.

Related: Is AWS too complex for small dev teams?

5. Explain a use case for Docker

Docker a low overhead way to run virtual machines on your local box or in the cloud. Although they’re not strictly distinct machines, nor do they need to boot an OS, they give you many of those benefits.

Docker can encapsulate legacy applications, allowing you to deploy them to servers that might not otherwise be easy to setup with older packages & software versions.

Docker can be used to build test boxes, during your deploy process to facilitate continuous integration testing.

Docker can be used to provision boxes in the cloud, and with swarm you can orchestrate clusters too. Pretty cool!

Related: Will Microservices just die already?

6. How is communicating relevant to Devops

Since devops brings a new process of continuous delivery to the organization, it involves some risk. Actually doing things the old way involves more risk in the long term, because things can and will break. With automation, you can recovery quicker from failure.

But this new world, requires a leap of faith. It’s not right for every organization or in every case, and you’ll likely strike a balance from what the devops holy book says, and what your org can tolerate. However inevitably communication becomes very important as you advocate for new ways of doing things.

Related: How do I migrate my skills to the cloud?

Get more. Grab our exclusive monthly Scalable Startups. We share tips and special content. Our latest Why I don’t work with recruiters

Is there a serious skills shortage around devops space?

via GIPHY

As devops adoption picks up pace, the signs are everywhere. Infrastructure as code once a backwater concept, and a hoped for ideal, has become an essential to many startups.

Why might that be?

Join 37,000 others and follow Sean Hull on twitter @hullsean.

My theory is that devops enables the business in a lot of profound ways. Sure it means one sysadmin can do much more, manage a fleet of servers, and support a large user base. But it goes much deeper than that.





Being able to standup your entire dev, qa, or production environment at the click of the button transforms software delivery dramatically. It means it can happen more often, more easily, and with less risk to the business. It means you can do things like blue/green deployments, rolling out featues without any risk to the production environment running in parallel.

What kind of chops does it take?

Strong generalist skills

For starters you’ll need a pragmatist mindset. Not fanatical about one technology, but open to the many choices available. And as a generalist, you start with a familiarity with a broad spectrum of skills, from coding, troubleshooting & debugging, to performance tuning & integration testing.

Stir into the mix good operating system fundamentals, top to bottom knowledge of Unix & Linux, networking, configuration and more. Maybe you’ve built kernels, compiled packages by hand, or better yet contributed to a few open source projects yourself.

You’ll be comfortable with databases, frontend frameworks, backend technologies & APIs. But that’s not all. You’ll need a broad understanding of cloud technologies, from GCP to AWS. S3, EC2, VPCs, EBS, webservers, caching servers, load balancing, Route53 DNS, serverless lambda. Add to all of that programmable infrastructure through CloudFormation or Terraform.

Related: 30 questions to ask a serverless fanboy

Competent programmer

Although as a devop you probably won’t be doing frontend dev, you’ll need some cursory understanding of those. You should be competent at Python and perhaps Nodejs. Maybe Ruby & bash scripts. You’ll need to understand JSON & Yaml, CloudFormation & Terraform if you want to deliver IAC.

Related: Does a 4-letter-word divide dev & ops?

Strong sysadmin with ops mindset

These are fundamental. But what does that mean? Ops mindset is born out of necessity. Having seen failures & outages, you prioritize around uptime. A simpler stack means fewer moving parts & less to manage. Do as Martin Weiner would suggest & use boring tech.

But you’ll also need to reason about all these components. That’ll come from dozens of debug & troubleshooting sessions you’ll do through years of practice.

Related: How to hire a developer that doesn’t suck

Understand build systems & deployment models

Build systems like CircleCI, Jenkins or Gitlab offer a way to automate code delivery. And as their use becomes more widespread knowing them becomes de rigueur. But it doesn’t end there.

With deployments you’ll have a lot to choose from. At the very simplest a single target deploy, to all-at-once, minimum in service and rolling upgrades. But if you have completely automated your dev, qa & prod infra buildout, you can dive into blue/green deployments, where you make a completely knew infra for each deploy, test, then tear down the old.

Related: Is AWS too complex for small dev teams?

Personality to communicate across organization

I think if you’ve made it this far you will agree that the technical know-how is a broad spectrum of modern computing expertise. But you’ll also need excellent people skills to put all this into practice.

That’s because devops is also about organizational transformation. Yes devs & ops have to get up to speed on the tech, but the organization has to get on board too. Many entrenched orgs pay lip service to devops, but still do a lot of things manually. This is out of fear as much as it stands as technical debt.

But getting past that requires evangelizing, and advocating. For that a leader in the devops department will need superb people skills. They’ll communicate concepts broadly across the organization to win hearts and minds.

Related: Will Microservices just die already?

Get more. Grab our exclusive monthly Scalable Startups. We share tips and special content. Our latest Why I don’t work with recruiters