Can humility help engagements succeed?

via GIPHY

I was reading this article on Vox recently titled Intellectual Humility: the importance of knowing you might be wrong.

Join 35,000 others and follow Sean Hull on twitter @hullsean.

It caught my attention, and I think we can expand on it a bit. Here are my thoughts.

1. Admitting when you’re wrong

Of course we’ve all had moments when we’re wrong. We make a proclamation, which turns out wrong. We measure something incorrectly. Or we forecast imprecisely.

It is hard to stand on the stage. The spotlight is on you. And when you do that you can be the object of criticism, and speculation. Just like everyone you may make mistakes, but when the spotlight is on you, it can weigh heavier.

That is exactly the time to be a bit humble, acknowledge your thought process, and where you went wrong. By standing up and admitting your mixup, you will come out the other side stronger.

Related: How can we keep cloud architectures simple

2. Admitting you might be wrong

This can be harder. As engineers we like to problem solve. We spend years exploring math & science, looking for the “truth”. The more one searches for it thought, sometimes the more illusive it can be.

Measurements are never exact. And theories and architectures often fail in the face of real world traffic. Applications fail. Servers fail. Outages happen. Customers especially paying ones will inevitably get angry, and this can backfire onto you.

Be prepared for the real world. It gets messy.

Also: What hidden things does a deposit reveal?

3. Allowing space for others to be wrong

This is a tricky one. You may know what others don’t, but it may take finesse to share that truth. You may have to sell your perspective, even while another perspective may be measurably wrong.

Be prepared to sometimes let things break a little. As hard as this is, it may allow for others to learn.

Like immunizing, sometimes failure can teach what words cannot.

Read: Can communication mixups sour an engagement?

Get more. Grab our exclusive monthly Scalable Startups. We share tips and special content. Our latest Why I don’t work with recruiters

How can communication mixups sour an enagement?

via GIPHY

I recently had some communications mixups with a customer. It reminded me how delicate, communications are between customers & vendors. What’s more they can be challenging between developers & managers. It highlighted for me these challenges, and the strategies I’ve learned over the years.

Join 38,000 others and follow Sean Hull on twitter @hullsean.

While I didn’t lose the project, the initial misunderstandings continued to eclipse the project, long after they were cleared up.

1. First a missed conference call

Early on, we setup a call to discuss the challenges. The time of the conference call had been agreed to, but somehow it didn’t make it into my calendar. So when the appointed day & time came, i missed the call. This was before any contract was signed, or even the engagement had gotten started.

Needless to say this is a very delicate moment, as everything we do sets precedents about our personality and working style.

While we were able to reschedule, it added some initial strain to the relationship. As you’ll see that compounded more later.

Related: Walking the delicate balance of transparency

2. Next arriving late to the kickoff meeting

I always pride myself on timeliness. I think it communicates all sorts of things to customers. First it shows you’re serious and will manage the project carefully. Next it shows you respect for others time.

As usual, I left plenty of extra time, so I would arrive well before the meeting. Arriving at the building 20 minutes early, I searched but could not find the entrance. Neither could google as it turns out. Strange I thought, what could be wrong? I walked into the building where the address should be, and asked the doorman. He explained that the company didn’t reside there. Perhaps they’re not located at Park Avenue, but rather Park Avenue South, he suggested. And then the lightbulb goes off. Of course!

Realizing I now have 5 minutes to arrive on time, I’m going to be late. So I attempt to call the manager leading the meeting. I get his voicemail, and leave a message. I then jump in a taxi, and head to the Park Avenue South address. Arriving 10 minutes late, I quickly head upstairs. I’m greeted by some grumbling, and frustrated looks.

Despite this being an understandable mistake, it comes on the heels of another mixup. So now I’ve set a precedent of lateness. Despite being a timely person, it’s hard to erase the stamp that is there now.

We continued to have strained relations through the engagement. While it did finish to completion, I believe it would have gotten extended were I not to have stumbled early on.

Also: When you have to take the fall

3. What can a mixup indicate?

There are many questions it may raise. Possible ones include:

o Is candidate too busy with other tasks?
o Is the person forgetful?
o Is one party bullying on their perspective?
o Is there finger pointing & blame game in the org?
o What is the culture of the organization?
o Is it one of understanding & working together or blame game?
o Is the person uninterested?
o Is the project not a priority?
o Is the company disorganized
o Is miscommunication endemic?

Some of these thoughts may bubble up consciously, and some may linger as a bad taste in your mouth. Regardless, they should be faced head on, with understanding and humility on both sides.

Read: Why i ask for a deposit

4. The weight of first impressions

Inevitably, when there is a mixup, of lateness or missed meeting, there is a technical explanation. In my story above, the *reason* is Park Avenue and Park Avenue South are completely different addresses.

o First impressions are KEY

Even with a reasonable explanation, there is a reaction that is felt.

o There is a visceral emotional reaction we all have anyway

Such a reaction is easy to cause, but hard to patch up. It will take time, and multiple interactions to set a new impression to people.

o Reactions can be incorrect & irrational sometimes
o They can color further interactions

With time impressions can be adjusted, but it takes much more work after an initial mistake.

Check out: How to hire a developer that doesn’t suck

5. Possible solutions

While there is no sure fire way to avoid mixups like these, there are some things that can work in your favor.

o maintain flexibility

That means accepting blame, and mutual responsibility in reaching the goal posts.

o maintain a sense of I *can* be wrong

Everyone can be wrong, and everyone makes mistakes. So don’t try to avoid blame. That said emphasize that everyone must work together. On communicating engagement details, on mutual agreed times, and time zones.

o look for a sense of we *can* be wrong

I think these types of mixups can also be beneficial. For they underscore the customers management style. Do they point fingers, or acknowledge reasonable mistakes. Both parties will make mistakes eventually, and understanding of this builds good faith down the road.

o “let’s work together to improve communication”

Framing the mixup as a shared problem is important. Although the address mixup above is technically my fault, it’s probably a common one. Park Avenue South confuses everyone in New York. So an understanding customer might offer to share a bit in this with you.

o hold frame of mutual responsibility and working together using the word “we”

The frame is key. It’s not *all* your fault, nor is it the customers if they mixup. We all need to be understanding, to a point.

Also: Can daily notes help you work better with clients?

Get more. Grab our exclusive monthly Scalable Startups. We share tips and special content. Our latest Why I don’t work with recruiters

What hidden things does a deposit reveal?

via GIPHY

I like this idea of how integration tests in software development show you that everything is working and connected together properly.

Join 38,000 others and follow Sean Hull on twitter @hullsean.

I think it’s interesting to consider how a deposit may serve a similar function across the financial space & contractual space.

1. Alignment across business units

In really small organizations, everyone is in tight communication. Finance knows what engineering is doing. In medium to large organizations, there can be a disconnect. Engineering may be 100% ready to start today, but finance is not ready. In some cases finance may not even know a consultant is being hired. Each case is different.

Some CTOs get this right away, and are already ahead of the request. While others might ask, “Well we’re ready to get going today, do you really need the deposit first? Because that might take some time.”

My thinking is, yes the engineering department is ready, but the organization is *not* completely ready. And it’s better that there be alignment across the organization. Ironing out that alignment, helps avoid other problems later on.

Related: When you have to take the fall

2. Organization or disorganization

Sometimes there is complete alignment, the contract is already ready, and the whole org really is ready to go. In other cases there can be some disfunction. For instance the lawyers have a lot of hoops that want us to jump through, in terms of a contract.

In other cases finance may only cut checks on a certain day of the month, or only pay 30 days after receiving an invoice. There are a lot of different policies. By insisting that we receive a deposit, however small, we iron out these things early.

If the engineering manager or CTO hiring you promises one thing, but finance has a policy against that, you’ll want to know early to avoid misunderstandings.

Related: Why generalists are better at scaling the web

3. Trust

The amount of a deposit is really irrelevant. It’s all about getting ducks in a row. Both in terms of what may be required of you the vendor, and what the company’s policies may be when onboarding consultants.

By ironing out these issues early, the customer is showing some faith in you as a vendor. They want you in particular, and will do what they need to, to make it work.

Related: Is AGILE right for fixing performance issues?

4. We want you to rush, but we don’t

I’ve encountered many cases where engineering was “ready” but finance was not. It’s tough. From the perspective of the CTO it may be a moot point to get stuck on.

My thought is to hold the frame of two organizations working together. When the organization has alignment that hiring this engineering resource is a priority, it will get things done that it needs to.

Related: How to hire a developer that doesn’t suck

5. Stress tests or organizational integration tests

In software testing, we have something called an integration test. It might be confirming that a login works, or a certain page can load. Behind the scenes that test requires the database to be running, the queuing system to work, an API call to return successfully, and so on. A lot of moving parts all have to be working for that test to succeed.

In a very real way, a deposit is the financial equivalent of an integration test. It confirms that we’re all aligned in the ways we need to, and are ready to get started.

Related: How do I migrate my skills to the cloud?

Get more. Grab our exclusive monthly Scalable Startups. We share tips and special content. Our latest Why I don’t work with recruiters

Walking the delicate balance of transparency

via GIPHY

I’ve written before about How I use progress reports to stay on track.

Join 38,000 others and follow Sean Hull on twitter @hullsean.

I think it’s an interesting topic, and an important one.

While I do believe transparency is important when working with clients, that doesn’t mean it’s easy.

1. I start with daily notes

As I mentioned above I think they’re important. They provide visibility, improve trust, and keep me on track. They also help me remember what was happening on particular days. They’re like breadcrumbs on the path to building solutions.

Related: How to hire a developer that doesn’t suck

2. Notes can highlight organizational dysfunction

Often in my notes, there are details of who I coordinate to get what done. Perhaps I need credentials to reach a particular server. But to get those, I need an email address. And to get that, someone in department X must set that up. And there are delays with that process.

Those delays can cascade through the onboarding process, frustrating everyone. Although the operations team is read and raring to go, the finance or legal team is not quite ready, and there are delays there. Or there are hiccups in some other frequent business process.

Related: Why generalists are better at scaling the web

3. Notes can highlight task complexity

Sometimes I hear the phrase “That should be simple to do”. Only to find the devil buried in the details. As we put boots on the ground, we find there are many dependent tasks that are not finished. So those must be completed first.

In this case I think complexity of notes is a real triumph. For CTOs that are more management oriented, they may not have day-to-day understanding of coding complexity. And that’s ok. But when that complexity is laid out in all it’s gory detail it can be a real educational experience.

Related: How do I migrate my skills to the cloud?

4. For some CTOs high level is better

For some CTOs, they don’t want to slog through endless notes about setting up credentials, or problems with permissions of keys on server X or Y.

While in these cases I still collect the detail, I may also add some high level bullet points, that focus on what all these underlying parts are in service of.

Related: When you have to take the fall

5. Be prepared for archeological surprises

Inevitably there will be surprises. Whether department X does not know what department Y is doing. Or whether setting up an aws account takes two days, instead of two hours. Be prepared.

Inevitably I find these all help communication. And since I’ve been keeping them, I’ve never had a customer balk at an invoice. Notes don’t lie!

Related: Why i ask for a deposit

Get more. Grab our exclusive monthly Scalable Startups. We share tips and special content. Our latest Why I don’t work with recruiters

How do you handle the onboarding at a new engagement?

via GIPHY

Jumping into the fray at a new firm is never easy. You’ll have new people’s names to remember, new web dashboards to login to, to bookmark, etc. New passwords to remember, new workflows to learn.

Join 38,000 others and follow Sean Hull on twitter @hullsean.

While fulltime folks typically onboard logins in a week, and don’t contribute code for a month or more, consultant engagements mean hitting the ground running.

Here’s what I try to manage, when first diving in.

1. Deposit & agreement

When I start at a new engagement, I require a deposit. There are a lot of moving parts to that happening. In engineering speak, it acts like an integration test across your entire organization. All the departments must be aligned. Legal with the agreement language. Finance with the banking details, and invoice. CTO or manager with a clear picture of scope of work.

In getting past that first hurdle, both parties, will express their working style. And usually there are compromises that must be made on both sides. But the effort each one makes is essential to a strong and equitable relationship that you’re both working to build.

Related: How to hire a developer that doesn’t suck

2. Over communicate

Sometimes your teammate doesn’t know you’re also working to get things over to legal. And legal doesn’t know you’re working with finance. And finance doesn’t know you’re trying to tune a database. And the network admin doesn’t know your email address isn’t setup.

When in down over communicate. Don’t be afraid to repeat in an email what you thought you’d communicated clearly on slack. Sometimes slack messages are missed, as there are so many that get thrown around. It’s easy to miss a notification.

When in down, communicate again. Ask for clarification. Ask if there is anything someone may be waiting on.

Related: Why generalists are better at scaling the web

3. Keep daily notes

I’m a big fan of providing daily progress reports. There is a hell of a lot of detail buried in most tasks, and much of that gets lost in the shuffle.

Putting together your own notes of what your day looked like can help management understand that complexity. It can also help communicate where the organization is getting stuck. Sometimes surprises here can help unblock the org in other ways.

Related: Why i ask for a deposit

4. Beware the Slack rabbit hole

Slack can at times be a blessing, allowing you to reach someone immediately, but also sometimes be a curse. Have I seen every notification? Does the person who posted a note *assume* that I saw it? Which thread was that detail posted in anyway?

I personally like to repeat a lot of communications in email. From a consulting perspective this is also essential as it provides me a paper trail of what conversations we had. Remember once an engagement is completed, you lose the entire Slack message thread. That’s not true of email.

Related: When you have to take the fall

5. Anticipate login issues

Typically at the start of an engagement there is an email setup, and other authentication hangs off of that one. AWS confirms via email, or perhaps there is an SSO solution like OKTA. Inevitably, these interconnected pieces take time to setup. And one will hit a snag slowing down your over all onboarding.

Expect hiccups and challenges in this process. It’s normal for it to take some days. Imagine that FT hires typically onboard in a week, and don’t contribute code for a month or more. So keep everything in perspective on these points.

Related: How do I migrate my skills to the cloud?

Get more. Grab our exclusive monthly Scalable Startups. We share tips and special content. Our latest Why I don’t work with recruiters

What was the best decision you made in your career?

via GIPHY

I was recently asked this question by a colleague. I thought a little bit about it for a moment. The answer was quite clear.

For me the answer is easy. Going indedepent has been the best decision of my career.

Join 38,000 others and follow Sean Hull on twitter @hullsean.

Starting at the birth of the internet explosion, mid-nineties when mozilla became real. The dot-com era took off, and so did the demand for engineering talent.

1. Going independent

For me I had just moved to New York. So timing was right. I had experience running my own business, in my teen years. That streak of independence drove me to do the same with my technology skills. Call it a hunger. A need to go it alone, make my own way in the world.

Related: When you have to take the fall

2. Self directed career

The advantages of going it alone are a double edge sword. On the one hand you can steer towards projects you find interesting. And upgrade your skills in those directions. The downside is you’re taking on all the risk. If you’re wrong about the direction of the industry, you’ll have wasted your time, money, and resources.

I wrote previously about that in Why do people leave consulting. It’s one reason among many.

Related: When clients don’t pay

3. Wide ranging exposure

For many in the traditional FT career track, you may work for 5-10 companies in the course of 20 years. In my case I’ve worked for close to 200 firms in that time.

In that process, you get exposure. To human problems & challenges, to product design & development problems, and architectural issues. And at that scale, patterns begin to emerge, as you see certain types of issues repeat themselves. This becomes valuable insight.

Related: Why i ask for a deposit

4. Build survival skills

As I mentioned previously, independence is a double edged sword. You build survival skills. But you need them. There’s no net beneath you, protecting you from falling. So you’re forced to make hard decisions about how you spend your time, finding projects, networking, learning new skills, and delivering in a real way to your customers.

The dividend is that now you have survival skills. And those indeed are very valuable.

Related: Why i ask for a deposit

5. Good money

There is a myth that consultants make more money. But then i hear stories of someone getting laid off, and getting a 4 or 5 month severance. That’s shocking to me. What’s more people often forget about the value of days off, health care & other benefits, and the huge one being upgrading skills. If a firm is offering you this, take advantage!

Remember that you’ll get none of these benefits working for yourself, unless you’re successful enough to reward yourself in this way. That means having a good pipeline of projects, and a trail of happy successful customers behind you. They will tell your story, and sell you to colleagues.

Related: Why i ask for a deposit

Get more. Grab our exclusive monthly Scalable Startups. We share tips and special content. Our latest Why I don’t work with recruiters

Before you do infrastructure as code, consider your workflow carefully

via GIPHY

What happens with infrastructure as code when you want to make a change on prod?

I’ve been working on automation for a few years now. When you build your cloud infrastructure with code, you really take everything to a whole new level.

Join 38,000 others and follow Sean Hull on twitter @hullsean.

You might be wondering, what’s the day to day workflow look like? It’s not terribly different from regular software development. You create a branch, write some code, test it, and commit it. But there are some differences.

1. Make a change on production

In this scenario, I have development branch reference the repo directly on my laptop. There is a module, but it references locally like this:

source = “../”

So here are the steps:

1. Make your change to terraform in main repo

This happens in the root source directory. Make your changes to .tf files, and save them.

2. Apply change on dev environment

You haven’t committed any changes to the git repo yet. You want to test them. Make sure there are no syntax errors, and they actually build the cloud resources you expect.

$ terraform plan
$ terraform apply

fix errors, etc.

3. Redeploy containers

If you’re using ECS, your code above may have changed a task definition, or other resources. You may need to update the service. This will force the containers to redeploy fresh with any updates from ECR etc.

4. Eyeball test

You’ll need to ssh to the ecs-host and attach to containers. There you can review env, or verify that docker ps shows your new containers are running.

5. commit changes to version control

Ok, now you’re happy with the changes on dev. Things seem to work, what next? You’ll want to commit your changes to the git repo:

$ git commit -am “added some variables to the application task definition”

6. Now tag your code – we’ll use v1.5

$ git tag -a v1.5 -m “added variables to app task definition”
$ git push origin v1.5

Be sure to push the tag (step 2 above)

7. Update stage terraform module to use v1.5

In your stage main.tf where your stage module definition is, change the source line:

source = “git::https://github.com/hullsean/infra-repo.git?ref=v1.5”

8. Apply changes to stage

$ terraform init
$ terraform plan
$ terraform apply

Note that you have to do terraform init this time. That’s because you are using a new version of your code. So terraform has to go and fetch the whole thing, and cache it in .terraform directory.

9. apply change on prod

Redo steps 7 & 8 for your prod-module main.tf.

Related: When you have to take the fall

2. Pros of infrastructure code

o very professional pipeline
o pipeline can be further automated with tests
o very safe changes on prod
o infra changes managed carefully in version control
o you can back out changes, or see how you got here
o you can audit what has happened historically

Related: When clients don’t pay

3. Cons of over automating

o no easy way to sidestep
o manual changes will break everything
o you have to have a strong knowledge of Terraform
o you need a strong in-depth knowledge of AWS
o the whole team has to be on-board with automation
o you can’t just go in and tweak things

Related: Why i ask for a deposit

Get more. Grab our exclusive monthly Scalable Startups. We share tips and special content. Our latest Why I don’t work with recruiters

How to avoid legal problems in consulting

via GIPHY

I posted a newsletter recently entitled “When Clients Don’t Pay”.

I got a lot of responses in email, which is always encouraging. I’m happy to know that folks are reading and getting something out of my ideas.

One colleague suggested that I modify my last point about going to court. He suggested that legal action does make sense after other avenues are exhausted.

Join 38,000 others and follow Sean Hull on twitter @hullsean.

My feeling about avoiding court, has only grown stronger over the years.

There are usually only a few reasons a customer won’t pay. In my experience each of them are avoidable without going to court.

Here are my thoughts on those…

1. Misaligned on tasks, deliverables or deadlines

I find weekly progress reports and endless notes go a long way towards avoiding this problem. If it does arise, there is usually something specific in those notes that can be remedied.

One also needs to be willing to compromise. Putting yourself in the other’s shoes will help to understand their perspective.

Communicate, communicate, and communicate more!

Related: When you have to take the fall

2. Budget problems

Here there isn’t a lot to do anyway. Although companies are obligated to meet payroll by law, they are not so with vendors. If they are out of cash, will court really resolve that?

My way of heading off this problem is, billing/invoicing in smaller increments, getting a deposit, and keep on top of things, so larger debts don’t build up.

Related: The fine art of resistance

3. Shady customers

These I usually suss out well before becoming engaged. I’ve had a few incidents where a prospect was meeting me to get “free advice”. They ask a lot of architectural questions, and take careful notes. Then don’t engage, or use their own people to implement.

One situation in particular I remember was around scalability. The product was a website & app for teachers. From the beginning they built it to sync data instantly. As they got bigger and more customers used the platform, their servers became heavily loaded.

I suggested, instead of looking for a technical solution, why not offer your customers, silver, bronze & gold service levels. For the gold customers, yeah they get their own servers, and can sync all the time. But for the silver ones, once-a-day would probably suffice. Much less load on the servers, because 75% of customers would go silver, 20% bronze and 5% gold.

They actually ran with the idea and implemented it, but never hired me even for an hour of work. I knew they implemented it because I had a friend in the company. It is experiences like that which teach you quite a lot about business and about how you conduct yourself.

This has happened a few times, and I guess it’s part of doing business. But usually that comes out before we go much further, so in a sense it’s a blessing in disguise. 🙂

Related: How to hire a developer that doesn’t suck

Get more. Grab our exclusive monthly Scalable Startups. We share tips and special content. Our latest Why I don’t work with recruiters

I tried to build infrastructure as code Terraform and Amazon. It didn’t go as I expected.

via GIPHY

As I was building infrastructure code, I stumbled quite a few times. You hit a wall and you have to work through those confusing and frustrating moments.

Join 38,000 others and follow Sean Hull on twitter @hullsean.

Here are a few of the lessons I learned in the process of building code for AWS. It’s not easy but when you get there you can enjoy the vistas. They’re pretty amazing.

Don’t pass credentials

As you build your applications, there are moments where components need to use AWS in some way. Your webserver needs to use S3 or your ELK box needs to use CloudWatch. Maybe you want to do an RDS backup, or list EC2 instances.

However it’s not safe to pass your access_key and secret_access_key around. Those should be for your desktop only. So how best to handle this in the cloud?

IAM roles to the rescue. These are collections of privileges. The cool thing is they can be assigned at the INSTANCE LEVEL. Meaning your whole server has permissions to use said resources.

Do this by first creating a role with the privileges you want. Create a json policy document which outlines the specific rules as you see fit. Then create an instance profile for that role.

When you create your ec2 instance in Terraform, you’ll specify that instance profile. Either by ARN or if Terraform created it, by resource ID.

Related: How to avoid insane AWS bills

Keep passwords out of code

Even though we know it should not happen, sometimes it does. We need to be vigilant to stay on top of this problem. There are projects like Pivotal’s credential scan. This can be used to check your source files for passwords.

What about something like RDS? You’re going to need to specify a password in your Terraform code right? Wrong! You can define a variable with no default as follows:

variable "my_rds_pass" {
  description = "password for rds database"
}

When Terraform comes upon this variable in your code, but sees there is no “default” value, it will prompt you when you do “$ terraform apply”

Related: How best to do discovery in cloud and devops engagements?

Versioning your code

When you first start building terraform code, chances are you create a directory, and some tf files, then do your “$ terraform apply”. When you watch that infra build for the first time, it’s exciting!

After you add more components, your code gets more complex. Hopefully you’ve created a git repo to house your code. You can check & commit the files, so you have them in a safe place. But of course there’s more to the equation than this.

How do you handle multiple environments, dev, stage & production all using the same code?

That’s where modules come in. Now at the beginning you may well have a module that looks like this:

module "all-proj" {

  source = "../"

  myvar = "true"
  myregion = "us-east-1"
  myami = "ami-64300001"
}

Etc and so on. That’s the first step in the right direction, however if you change your source code, all of your environments will now be using that code. They will get it as soon as you do “$ terraform apply” for each. That’s fine, but it doesn’t scale well.

Ultimately you want to manage your code like other software projects. So as you make changes, you’ll want to tag it.

So go ahead and checkin your latest changes:

# push your latest changes
$ git push origin master
# now tag it
$ git tag -a v0.1 -m "my latest coolest infra"
# now push the tags
$ git push origin v0.1

Great now you want to modify your module slightly. As follows:

module "all-proj" {

  source = "git::https://[email protected]/hullsean/myproj-infra.git?ref=v0.1"

  myvar = "true"
  myregion = "us-east-1"
  myami = "ami-64300001"
}

Cool! Now each dev, stage and prod can reference a different version. So you are free to work on the infra without interrupting stage or prod. When you’re ready to promote that code, checkin, tag and update stage.

You could go a step further to be more agile, and have a post-commit hook that triggers the stage terraform apply. This though requires you to build solid infra tests. Checkout testinfra and terratest.

Related: Are you getting good at Terraform or wrestling with a bear?

Managing RDS backups

Amazon’s RDS service is a bit weird. I wrote in the past asking Is upgrading RDS like a shit-storm that will not end?. Yes I’ve had my grievances.

My recent discovery is even more serious! Terraform wants to build infra. And it wants to be able to later destroy that infra. In the case of databases, obviously the previous state is one you want to keep. You want that to be perpetual, beyond the infra build. Obvious, no?

Apparently not to the folks at Amazon. When you destroy an RDS instance it will destroy all the old backups you created. I have no idea why anyone would want this. Certainly not as a default behavior. What’s worse you can’t copy those backups elsewhere. Why not? They’re probably sitting in S3 anyway!

While you can take a final backup when you destroy an RDS instance, that’s wondeful and I recommend it. However that’s not enough. I highly suggest you take matters into your own hands. Build a script that calls pg_dump yourself, and copy those .sql or .dump files to S3 for safe keeping.

Related: Is zero downtime even possible on RDS?

When to use force_destroy on S3 buckets

As with RDS, when you create S3 buckets with your infra, you want to be able to cleanup later. But the trouble is that once you create a bucket, you’ll likely fill it with objects and files.

What then happens is when you go to do “$ terraform destroy” it will fail with an error. This makes sense as a default behavior. We don’t want data disappearing without our knowledge.

However you do want to be able to cleanup. So what to do? Two things.

Firstly, create a process, perhaps a lambda job or other bucket replication to regularly sync your s3 bucket to your permanent bucket archive location. Run that every fifteen minutes or as often as you need.

Then add a force_destroy line to your s3 bucket resource. Here’s an example s3 bucket for storing load balancer logs:

data "aws_elb_service_account" "main" {}

resource "aws_s3_bucket" "lb_logs" {
  count         = "${var.create-logs-bucket ? 1 : 0}"
  force_destroy = "${var.force-destroy-logs-bucket}"
  bucket        = "${var.lb-logs-bucket}"
  acl           = "private"

  policy = POLICY
{
  "Id": "Policy",
  "Version": "2012-10-17",
  "Statement": [
    {
      "Action": [
        "s3:PutObject"
      ],
      "Effect": "Allow",
      "Resource": "arn:aws:s3:::${var.lb-logs-bucket}/*",
      "Principal": {
        "AWS": [
          "${data.aws_elb_service_account.main.arn}"
        ]
      }
    }
  ]
}
POLICY

  tags {
    Environment = "${var.environment_name}"
  }
}

NOTE: There should be “< <" above and to the left of POLICY. HTML was not having this, and I couldn't resolve it quickly. Oh well.

Related: Why generalists are better at scaling the web

Get more. Grab our exclusive monthly Scalable Startups. We share tips and special content. Our latest Why I don’t work with recruiters

How to find freelance work

via GIPHY

I’ve decided to take the plunge, and begin a career as a freelancer. What do you think of services like UpWork? Can I build a business around that?

Join 38,000 others and follow Sean Hull on twitter @hullsean.

There are lots of services that promise the same thing. Headshops too are businesses built around reselling you to customers.

1. Whose relationship?

On those platforms you are a commodity. And further you don’t control the relationship. Upwork becomes your customer.

This is a crucial point. You can’t negotiate additional services or fees, or build on the relationship. Because your customer is UpWork. They control the business they bring to you.

Just remember, your boss/client/customer is the one who writes you a check.

Related: When you have to take the fall

2. Learn sales

If you think you’re not so great at sales, join the club. It’s a real talent, and one everybody is not born with.

But if you want to work for yourself, it’s absolutely crucial. So get practicing!

Related: When clients don’t pay

3. Go to events

The ways i have found, network, meetups, blog weekly and have a newsletter that you send out monthly. Add everyone you ever meet to your newsletter. Write interesting things & appeal to a broad audience. Some receiving your newsletter will not read it but they will see your name pop up in their inbox once a month.

Related: Why i ask for a deposit

4. Expand

As you network, ask others for recommendations. Events, private email lists, single day conferences, forums etc.

Related: Can progress reports help consulting engagementss succeed?

5. Craft an origin story

And don’t forget to tell your story. And tell it well. Craft a memorable origin narrative. Practice & and add or remove things that resonate with people you meet. Even ask people, what do you think about my presentation? Any suggestions? Is it confusing, enticing, exciting?

Related: Why do people leave consulting?

Get more. Grab our exclusive monthly Scalable Startups. We share tips and special content. Our latest Why I don’t work with recruiters