Tag Archives: mongodb

Which tech do startups use most?

MySQL on Amazon Cloud AWS

Leo Polovets of Susa Ventures publishes an excellent blog called Coding VC. There you can find some excellent posts, such as pitches by analogy, and an algorithm for seed round valuations and analyzing product hunt data.

He recently wrote a blog post about a topic near and dear to my heart, Which Technologies do Startups Use. It’s worth a look.

One thing to keep in mind looking over the data, is that these are AngelList startups. So that’s not a cross section of all startups, nor does it cover more mature companies either.

In my experience startups can get it right by starting fresh, evaluating the spectrum of new technologies out there, balancing sheer solution power with a bit of prudence and long term thinking.

I like to ask these questions:

o Which technologies are fast & high performance?
o Which technologies have a big, vibrant & robust community?
o Which technologies can I find plenty of engineers to support?
o Which technologies have low operational overhead?
o Which technologies have low development overhead?

1. Database: MySQL

MySQL holds a slight lead according to the AngelList data. In my experience its not overly complex to setup and there are some experienced DBAs out there. That said database expertise can still be hard to find .

We hear a lot about MongoDB these days, and it is surely growing in popularity. Although it doesn’t support joins and arbitrary slicing and dicing of data, it is a very powerful database engine. If your application needs more straightforward data access, it can bring you amazing speed improvements.

Postgres is a close third. It’s a very sophisticated database engine. Although it may have a smaller community than MySQL, overall it’s a more full featured database. I’d have no reservations recommending it.

Also: Top MySQL DBA Interview questions

2. Hosting: Amazon

Amazon Web Services is obviously the giant in the room. They’re big, they’re cheap, they’re nimble. You have a lot of options for server types, they’ve fixed many of the problems around disk I/O and so forth. Although you may still experience latency around multi-tenant related problems, you’ll benefit from a truly global reach, and huge cost savings from the volume of customers they support.

Heroku is included although they’re a different type of service. In some sense their offering is one part operations team & one part automation. Yes ultimately you are getting hosting & virtualization, but some things are tied down. Amazon RDS provides some parallels here. I wrote Is Amazon RDS hard to manage?. Long term you’re likely going to switch to an AWS, Joyent or Rackspace for real scale.

I was surprised to see Azure on the list at all here, as I rarely see startups build on microsoft technologies. It may work for the desktop & office, but it’s not the right choice for the datacenter.

Read: Are generalists better at scaling the web?

3. Languages: Javascript

Javascript & Node.js are clearly very popular. They are also highly scalable.

In my experience I see a lot of PHP & of course Ruby too. Java although there is a lot out there, can tend to be a bear as a web dev language, and provide some additional complication, weight and overhead.

Related: Is Hunter Walk right about operations & startups?

4. Search: Elastic Search

I like that they broke apart search technology as a separate category. It is a key component of most web applications, and I do see a lot of Elastic Search & Solr.

That said I think this may be a bit skewed. I think by far the number one solution would be NO SPECIFIC SEARCH technology. That’s right, many times devs choose a database centric approach, like FULLTEXT or others that perform painfully bad.

If this is you, consider these search solutions. They will bring you huge performance gains.

Check this: Are SQL Databases Dead?

5. Automation: Chef

As with search above, I’d argue there is a far more prevalent trend, that is #1 to use none of these automation technologies.

Although I do think chef, docker & puppet can bring you real benefits, it’s a matter of having them in the right hands. Do you have an operations team that is comfortable with using them? When they leave in a years time, will your new devops also know the technology you’re using? Can you find a good balance between automation & manual configuration, and document accordingly?

Read: Why are database & operations experts so hard to find?

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A handy guide for PHP and MongoDB Web Development

PHP and MongoDBWhat makes a beginner’s guide handy is when it speaks to your intuition. It anticipates the burning questions that follow from a newbie trying to grasp new concepts and it quickly answers them. PHP and MongoDB Web Development – Beginner’s Guide is one such guide.

I hadn’t heard of Packt Publishing or Rubayeet Islam before picking up this title and I must say I’m impressed. Based in Birmingham, with offices in Mumbai, part of Packt’s business model is to give part of the royalties earned from its books to the open source projects they cover.

I already had a working knowledge of MongoDB, mostly from an operational perspective. If you are new to MongoDB you’ll certainly appreciate how this book is structured. it cuts to the chase, diving right into the nuts and bolts of installing the pieces you’ll need such as database and drivers, and getting your first application running.

From there they take you through a basic web application step-by-step, with chapters on session management, MapReduce and GridFS. EVery time I flip through the pages of a technical book, I find I always have questions in the background; ‘what about performance?’ or ‘How do I troubleshoot these pieces as I’m building them?’

What I liked about this book is that almost as quickly as I’d formulate some question about performance, I’d happen upon answers in the book, as if it knew what would come to my mind at each point of the

I was thinking about tuning and application performance and then found chapter 9 which discusses MongoDB’s explain facility, similar to that of MySQL. From there they cover index creation, hints, and finally profiling. These are all important topics for a developer, ones that he or she should have in mind while building their applications. So I was happy to see good coverage of that even in a self-avowed beginners’ guide.

Building apps that talk to both MySQL and MongoDB

Another interesting chapter was one introducing the idea of building an application that can talk to both MySQL and MongoDB and using those two datastores for different purposes. Again while I’m reading it I start thinking about operational concerns, and I start asking how one would support such an architecture. And then just like clockwork, Islam answers that very question.

He explains the challenges around data consistency and operational support in detail. It’s a great way to introduce a topic without necessarily pushing that adoption per se. Islam is clearly an experienced programmer, with much reasoned advice to share.

The book had great utility but I do have a few complaints.

First off the font is a little funky, and hard to read after a while. In that same vein, some of the screenshots are very wide and as such were zoomed down. This made those tiny and not very readable. Also the screenshots aren’t really consistent, some are black on white and some white text on black terminal which ended up being impossible to read.

Lastly I would have liked to see more use case discussions. Particularly, when should I consider a NoSQL database like MongoDB over a relational database? Which types of applications are really well suited? Which aren’t? What about versus other NoSQL’s? The same with GridFS. There was some caution there after the material was introduced but more discussion about what applications it is well suited for would be useful.

Those few complaints aside, the book is overall very good and perhaps the publishers will consider improving the type and diagrams in the next edition. It definitely sticks to it’s cover page motto “Learn by doing: less theory, more results”.

NOSQL Database – What is it and why is it important?

NOSQL is a sort of all-encompassing term which includes very simple key/value databases like Memcache, along with more sophisticated non-relational databases such as Mongodb and Cassandra.

Relational databases have been around since the 70’s so they’re a very mature technology.  In general they support transactions allowing you to make changes to your data in discrete, controlled manner, they support constraints such as uniqueness, primary and foreign keys, and check constraints.  And furthermore they use SQL or so-called Simplified Query Language to access ie fetch data, and also modify data by inserting, updating or deleting records.

SQL though is by no means simple, and developers over the years have taken a disliking to it like the plague.  For good reason.  Furthermore RDBMS’ aka relational database management systems, don’t horizontally scale well at all.  To some degree you can get read-only scalability with replication, but with a lot of challenges.  But write-based scaling has been much tougher a problem to solve.  Even Oracle’s RAC (formerly Parallel Server) also known as Real Application Clusters, faces a lot of challenges keeping it’s internal caches in sync over special data interconnects.  The fact is changes to your data – whether it’s on your iphone, desktop addressbook or office directory, those changes take time to propagate to various systems.  Until that data is propagated, you’re looking at stale data.

Enter NOSQL databases like MongoDB which attempt to address some of these concerns.  For starters data is not read/written to the database using the old SQL language, but rather using an object-oriented method which is developers find very convenient and intuitive.  What’s more it supports a lot of different type of indexing for fast lookups of specific data later.

But NOSQL databases don’t just win fans among the development side of the house, but with Operations too, as it scales very well.  MongoDB for instance has clustering built-in, and promises an “eventually consistent” model to work against.

To be sure a lot of high-profile companies are using NOSQL databases, but in general they are in use for very specific needs.  What’s more it remains to be seen whether or not many of those databases as they grow in size, and the needs for which they are put stretch across more general applications, if they won’t need to be migrated to more traditional relational datastores later.

Sean Hull asks on Quora – What is NOSQL and why is it important?