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Which tech do startups use most?

MySQL on Amazon Cloud AWS

Leo Polovets of Susa Ventures publishes an excellent blog called Coding VC. There you can find some excellent posts, such as pitches by analogy, and an algorithm for seed round valuations and analyzing product hunt data.

He recently wrote a blog post about a topic near and dear to my heart, Which Technologies do Startups Use. It’s worth a look.

One thing to keep in mind looking over the data, is that these are AngelList startups. So that’s not a cross section of all startups, nor does it cover more mature companies either.

In my experience startups can get it right by starting fresh, evaluating the spectrum of new technologies out there, balancing sheer solution power with a bit of prudence and long term thinking.

I like to ask these questions:

o Which technologies are fast & high performance?
o Which technologies have a big, vibrant & robust community?
o Which technologies can I find plenty of engineers to support?
o Which technologies have low operational overhead?
o Which technologies have low development overhead?

1. Database: MySQL

MySQL holds a slight lead according to the AngelList data. In my experience its not overly complex to setup and there are some experienced DBAs out there. That said database expertise can still be hard to find .

We hear a lot about MongoDB these days, and it is surely growing in popularity. Although it doesn’t support joins and arbitrary slicing and dicing of data, it is a very powerful database engine. If your application needs more straightforward data access, it can bring you amazing speed improvements.

Postgres is a close third. It’s a very sophisticated database engine. Although it may have a smaller community than MySQL, overall it’s a more full featured database. I’d have no reservations recommending it.

Also: Top MySQL DBA Interview questions

2. Hosting: Amazon

Amazon Web Services is obviously the giant in the room. They’re big, they’re cheap, they’re nimble. You have a lot of options for server types, they’ve fixed many of the problems around disk I/O and so forth. Although you may still experience latency around multi-tenant related problems, you’ll benefit from a truly global reach, and huge cost savings from the volume of customers they support.

Heroku is included although they’re a different type of service. In some sense their offering is one part operations team & one part automation. Yes ultimately you are getting hosting & virtualization, but some things are tied down. Amazon RDS provides some parallels here. I wrote Is Amazon RDS hard to manage?. Long term you’re likely going to switch to an AWS, Joyent or Rackspace for real scale.

I was surprised to see Azure on the list at all here, as I rarely see startups build on microsoft technologies. It may work for the desktop & office, but it’s not the right choice for the datacenter.

Read: Are generalists better at scaling the web?

3. Languages: Javascript

Javascript & Node.js are clearly very popular. They are also highly scalable.

In my experience I see a lot of PHP & of course Ruby too. Java although there is a lot out there, can tend to be a bear as a web dev language, and provide some additional complication, weight and overhead.

Related: Is Hunter Walk right about operations & startups?

4. Search: Elastic Search

I like that they broke apart search technology as a separate category. It is a key component of most web applications, and I do see a lot of Elastic Search & Solr.

That said I think this may be a bit skewed. I think by far the number one solution would be NO SPECIFIC SEARCH technology. That’s right, many times devs choose a database centric approach, like FULLTEXT or others that perform painfully bad.

If this is you, consider these search solutions. They will bring you huge performance gains.

Check this: Are SQL Databases Dead?

5. Automation: Chef

As with search above, I’d argue there is a far more prevalent trend, that is #1 to use none of these automation technologies.

Although I do think chef, docker & puppet can bring you real benefits, it’s a matter of having them in the right hands. Do you have an operations team that is comfortable with using them? When they leave in a years time, will your new devops also know the technology you’re using? Can you find a good balance between automation & manual configuration, and document accordingly?

Read: Why are database & operations experts so hard to find?

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Is Hunter Walk right about operations & startups?

The.Rohit - Flickr

The.Rohit – Flickr

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Hunter Walk blogged recently about the importance of building great operations teams. And while he was speaking primarily about business operations, the startup technical operations teams are equally difficult to get right.

1. performance & scalability

As your grows like Birchbox, your customer growth curve may begin to look like a hockey stick. That’s a good problem to have. Will your web application be able to keep up with the onslaught of traffic those customers bring?

Getting performance and scalability just right, will mean fewer site crashes during those key moments when all eyes are on your site.

Also: Is top operations talent hard to find?

2. Operations is key to architecture

Developers will always have strong opinions on architecture. However they may be heavily influenced by their own mandate, features, deliverability & deadlines. So it’s no surprise that they may sometimes choose to build on ORM’s, the middleware brought to you by Hibernate, Cake PHP, Active Record & the like.

And while these technologies seem a necessity in todays modern architectures, they play havoc with your long term scalability. Strong technical operations teams mean a better vision in this area. Heading off your reliance on these technologies will mean managing technical debt before it takes down your country.

Read: Are generalists better at scaling the web?

3. Operations informs strategy

Did you build in those operational switches to turn off the heaviest code, when your site gets overloaded? Operations strategy can help you see these problems on the horizon before they overwhelm you.

Have you considered building a browse only mode for your site? If you’ve ever visited Facebook or Yelp after hours you may have been greeted with the message “We can’t save your comments. Please try again later”. A small innocuous message to end users doesn’t disrupt their enjoyment of the site terribly. But from an technical operations perspective it’s huge. It means teams can perform backups, upgrades and maintenance without interrupting day-to-day activity on the site.

Related: Is scalability a big business?

4. Operations means resilience

We only learn real disaster recovery lessons from storms like Sandy. That’s because resilience highlighted best when it is a real & urgent need.

In technical operations, getting backups right & testing your recovery plan all form key steps in your path to excellence. Get them right before you need them, and ensure repeatability.

Read: Is high availability a real possibility?

5. Operations means technical strength

At the end of the day, getting technical operations right, means you can move from strength to strength. It means building on a solid foundation the likes of Google, Facebook, Foursquare & Etsy. It means you can evolve & grow with your customers, and meet their needs confidently.

Check out: Do startup CEO’s underestimate operational costs?

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5 ways startups misstep on scalability

Russian_Dolls

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1. Ignoring the database

Yes, your internet site sits on top of a database. Have you forgotten to take care of it?

Like a garden, it must be watered & tended. And a gardener will always scold you for leaving plants to wither. I guess as a database administrator by background, I’ve seen a lot of this. But truth be told it is in large part the cause of slowness.

Queries

Are you writing them? If you’re using an ORM middleware, you may be leaving this heavy lifting to a library. These are inefficient. Avoid the Vietnam of computer science.

Testing

Now that you’re writing SQL, are you testing & tuning each one? Think of it like turning apps off on your phone that you’re not using. Saves memory, battery, and general headache.

Monitoring

Now that you’ve gotten in the habit of caring for your database, keep at it. Monitor its health regularly. NewRelic as a service or Cacti, Ganglia or Collectd if you’d like to roll your own. Real data can reap real benefits.

Read: Are SQL Databases Dead

2. Shortage of caching

You’ve heard it before, we’ll say it again, make sure you’re caching. But where?

Content Network
Amazon has it’s CloudFront, Rackspace uses Akamai. There are many choices but the results are the same. Static assets such as html & css files, images & video content all part all part of the page you are serving, get dished out closer to your users. It’s like only asking them to go to a corner deli for a soda, rather than the closest supermarket.

Webserver tier

There are many things you can do to cache at the webserver. In particular you can configure to tell browsers to cache objects. One example is Cache-Control. That means longer time-to-live, so objects don’t expire by default. You can always expire them manually. There are also ways to compress objects as well. See How to cache websites & boost speed.

Between webserver & database

Are you using Memcache or redis? Caching here can reduce load on your database by as much as 10x. That’s like buying you 10x free servers, or one large one that costs 10x the price!

Most languages such as PHP provide libraries to interact with memcache. Whenever you make a call out to your database, first check memcache. If you find your key, fetch the value & done. Otherwise grab the answer from the database, and pop it into memcache.

At the database

Databases of all kinds, be they postgres, Oracle, or MySQL have a query cache. Be sure you’ve enabled & tuned yours. Also check that your buffer cache is sizeable enough to fit most frequently hit data. A hit ratio may provide you a cheap guestimate on this.

Related: Why a four letter word divides dev and ops

3. Missing metrics collection

In a recent article Why Scalability is big business I talked about collecting metrics. These are invaluable.

If you’re a home owner or renting, and want to know what you spent on energy in the past year, what do you do? You look at your heating bills for the winter months. Similarly, collecting real data on all your servers, like with cacti, or a service like NewRelic allows you to do the same thing with your servers & infrastructure.

Real hindsight, and real visibility helps everyone from operations teams, to business units evaluating past problems.

Also: Why a killer title can make or break your content efforts

4. Not building feature flags

Tractor trailers use two tires on every axil. If one fails, you are still on the road. Planes use redundant engines. Having switches built into your application to turn off non-essential features may seem abstract when your deadlines for features are looming.

But operational switches for your devops team should be seen as good foundation, and solid bedrock to build on. It means you can do the maintenance that you will need to do, and do it without interrupting customers. It also means when your site gets hammered, and we hope that day will come, you can adjust the dials, and not go down.

Related: Is Amazon RDS Difficult to Manage

5. Building on a single database

Various NoSQL databases like MongoDB, Cassandra & Hbase are distributed out of the box. Keep in mind though they make various tradeoffs to achieve this.

Meanwhile the vast majority of web applications are still built on reliable relational databases. But they don’t scale seamlessly. Build a read-only mode into your application and you’ll thank yourself for years to come. This means you can browse, even while the master database is offline. What’s more it means you can scale more easily.

Avoid solutions that try to scale writes across multiple servers. Partitioning aka sharding is terribly complex to get right, both in planning & layout. Lets not forget how do we piece together a puzzle of 8 shards with 8 pieces to a backup. Recipe for trouble. There are some new cluster options for MySQL, such as Galera. Oracle has it’s own take. But in the end you’ll do better to get a bigger box for your central datastore and keep it central.

Related: How to Deploy on Amazon with Vagrant

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Are startup CEO’s hiding their scalability problems?

Russian_Dolls

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Your site is running fine right? You have 1000 customers, and it usually runs smoothly. Just this one lingering question, why does it take five high performance EC2 instances to run the database, all on flash drives? Goood question!

The truth is one of the highest trafficed sites I managed, pulled in 100 million uniques a month, and only used three backend databases. That site was one of these wildly popular celebrity gossip sites, the ultimate guilty pleasure when you’re at the office and can’t watch reality tv!

Snickers aside, this is huge traffic. And all of the above was built on Drupal, with no ORM in the mix. It could even run, albeit noticeably slower, while memcache was disabled.

1. Servers with solid state drives

I’m very excited to see Amazon introduce servers with SSD drives. They can bring you 100x improvement of disk I/O, and that my friends is the end all and be all for databases. So why complain?

If you deploy on these boxes right out of the gates, it may be like using a crutch. You become dependent on it, and ignore real performance tuning. Solid state drives still won’t obviate that ORM middleware you’re using.

Also: Do managers & CEO’s underestimate operational costs?

2. Memcache saving your bad queries

Memcache is also a powerful tool. It sits between the database and your webservers, reducing load on the database by as much as 10x. That’s a great way to get better response time, and reduce drag on your db tier. But it’s still worthwhile performance tuning without it.

Why? If you can get your site to run without caching, it will run blazingly fast *with* it. Don’t use it as a crutch, use it as rocket fuel for your well tuned site.

Read this: Do startups need techops?

3. A legion of read slaves

I’ve seen smaller sites, using a ton of read slaves. All of it deployed to cover up slow & redundant queries pouring out of an ORM middleware layer, in this case Cake PHP.

Again, read slaves are great, but tune & test with less hardware, and get the performance up the hard way. With elbow grease!

Related: Howto automate MySQL query analysis with Amazon RDS

4. Really really big memory

64G, 128G, 256G of main memory? If I wax on about the days when you’d get excited by 64k, I’ll sound like an old timer. But with those extreme limitations, you had to write tight code. Otherwise it just wouldn’t do anything.

Really really big memory of today’s servers allows us to get lazy. I hear developers say “Hey, the database is 10G of data, and we have 64G main memory, so the whole thing will fit in memory. Problem solved!”

Duhhh… No. Why not? Because you still have to slice and dice that data. You still have to scan through for bits & pieces that aren’t indexed, then sort, and organize that into temporary memory space. In DBA speak, you’re still doing a ton of logical IOs.

Picture it another way, imagine the days when you’re on horseback, riding across the west. You travel light cause frankly your horse can carry only so much. Then along come cars, and you start loading up the trunk. You add the kitchen sign, and the rear tires are hanging on the ground. All seems fine until you hit a steep mountain, and you’re car is almost stalling at 20mph. If you had only carried the same load as you did on horseback, you’d be speeding across the country at lightning pace.

Read: Is Amazon RDS hard to manage?

5. Deploying poor code

Deadlines are looming, and new features must be deployed. So performance testing can wait until later. The code works after all.

Been there, done that. Code gets deployed and all of a sudden there are spikes on server load in the evening. Ops & DBA teams are screaming, “Who wrote this code?”.

Load testing should be a part of everyday QA & test. It’s the only way to avoid growing scalability problems.

Check this: Are SQL databases dead?

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Howto automate MySQL slow query analysis with amazon RDS

iRobot1

If you’ve used relational databases for more than ten minutes, I hope you’ve heard of slow queries. Those are those pesky little gremlins that are slowing down your startup, and preventing scalability you so desperately need.

Luckily there’s a solution. What I’ve found is if I send a report to developers every week, it keeps these issues front and center, for folks that are very busy indeed.

The script below is for RDS, but you can surely modify it if you have a physical server or roll-your-own MySQL box on Amazon. Take a look & enjoy!

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1. install percona tools

Percona as many probably already know, are a wildly successful services firm that support MySQL and related technologies. They also have a very popular & scalable MySQL distribution by the same name.

Even if you’re not using Percona MySQL, you definitely want to get ahold of the percona toolkit. It provides all sorts of useful tools, including the one this article is based on, query-digest.

This tool takes your stock MySQL slow query logfile as input, and summarizes it into a very useful and readable report. Formerly mk-query-digest, it’s not called pt-query-digest. See below.

You can install the percona tools easily by grabbing the repository file and installing that with rpm. From there you can just use yum or apt-get depending on your distribution.

Related: Why a killer title can make or break your content efforts

2. install aws command line tool

Amazon has consolidated all it’s command line tools into a single one called just “aws”. The options can be a little arcane, and the error messages misleading besides. What’s good though is it is slightly easier to install & configure.

Do you already use Python? Install it this way:


$ pip install awscli

If not, you’ll need to dig into the aws cli installation instructions further.

Also: Do managers underestimate operational costs?

3. edit .aws/config

After you get the tool installed, you need to setup your environment. I edited a file named /home/shull/.aws/config as follows:


[default]
region = us-east-1
aws_access_key_id = BLIBJZMKLWIL5UTNRBMQ
aws_secret_access_key = MF5J/2z7HmN92lQUrV12ZO/FBXNjDVjL52TNRWsG

Those access_key_id and secret_access_key you can find on your amazon dashboard. Click upper right hand corner under your name, select the menu item “Security Credentials”.

Check out: Are SQL Databases Dead?

4. edit send_query_report.sh

I wrote the script below so you can fairly easily edit it.


#!/bin/bash
#

# get the rds db instanceID from command line (or crontab) entry
#
AWS_INSTANCE=$1

# here's where we'll store the latest slowquery.log
#
SLOWLOG=/tmp/rds_slow.log
#SLOWLOG=`/bin/ls -tr /home/shull/*.log | /usr/bin/tail -1`

# fetch slow query log from rds box
# here I always grab the latest one.
#
/usr/local/bin/aws rds download-db-log-file-portion --db-instance-identifier $AWS_INSTANCE --output text --log-file-name slowquery/mysql-slowquery.log > $SLOWLOG

# query report output
SLOWREPORT=/tmp/reportoutput.txt

# pt-query-digest location
MKQD=/usr/local/bin/pt-query-digest

# run the tool to get analysis report
$MKQD $SLOWLOG > $SLOWREPORT

# today's date in a variable
TODAY=`/bin/date +\%m/\%d/\%Y-\%H:\%S`
#YESTERDAY=`/bin/date -d "1 day ago" +\%m/\%d/\%Y-\%H:\%S`

# report subject
SUBJECT="Sean Query Report -- $TODAY "

# recipient
EMAIL="hullsean@gmail.com"

# send an email using /bin/mail
/usr/bin/mailx -s "$SUBJECT" "$EMAIL" < $SLOWREPORT

Note, if you don't have mailx installed, it should be available in your repository. Use apt-get or yum as necessary to get it installed.

Also: Is high availability overrated & near impossible to deliver?

5. Add to crontab

After you've tested the above script from command line, you will want to add it to a weekly cron job. Voila, automation! Don't forget to chmod +x to make it executable. :)


00 09 * * 5 /home/shull/send_query_report.sh seandb

Read: Are MySQL DBA's impossible to find?

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What happens when you combine devops & continuous delivery into a card game?

release devops game

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Alex Papadimoulis & the guys at Inedo put together CodeMash The Game an interesting game for a new twist to conference going.

Now they’re at it again with a kickstarter to build Release! a game about devops & continuous delivery.

1. Bring your team together

Weekly standups are great, but what about throwing a quick card game in to mix things up? It’s an interesting twist and one that’s sure to help with team building.

Read: Why has no-one heard of Moskovitz but everyone knows Zuckerberg?

2. Learn more about cutting edge software development

Weak on your agile or want to raise your teams software quality. Release seems like a new and surprising way to do just that.

Related: Why I ask clients for a deposit

3. Learn about software development luminaries

Many of the important folks in the evolution of software development are featured in the game, such as Patrick Dubois, Jez Humble & Dan North.

Also: Is Amazon RDS hard to manage?

Why I ask clients for a deposit

Editor & writer in friendly dialog

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1. It indicates both parties are serious

A common refrain when discussing terms of a project, and reviewing statement of work – “when shall we get started?”. The answer should be, “I’m ready to get started anytime you like. Would you like to use paypal or ACH for deposit?”.

The deposit signals to the vendor that it’s time to get working. This client has the budget and is serious about moving forward today.

Read: Why Fred Wilson is wrong about Apple

2. It protects against scope changes

Startups & seasoned businesses alike have changing needs. That’s why they may choose a situational resource to begin with.

If the winds change, and we don’t need you tomorrow, a deposit defrays the final invoice, and or discounts you may have applied.

Related: Is Dave Eggers right about risks of social media?

3. Insurance if business fizzles

Fizzling business, is a nice way to say the market has changed. Perhaps the startup has decided to pursue other opportunities. In close to twenty years of business I’ve only had this happen twice.

Once I was working with a rewards card business. They were already having trouble meeting payroll. Turns out businesses have a legal obligation to meet payroll. That’s another way of saying they’re at the top of the who-gets-paid list. And vendors may be closer to the bottom. They owner went back to being a lawyer, his profession before the startup.

All in all, a deposit provides some insurance in these cases.

Read this: 5 cloud ideas that aren’t actually true

4. Signals your maturity to client

This is a hard one for some freelancers and consultants to stomach. “I really want to get going with consulting, and don’t want to turn away this client.” The thinking goes. But consulting is a peer relationship, where vendor and client need to be on an equal footing.

Your need for a deposit, and willingness to walk away without one, says to the client you are professional and have been in business for some time.

Also: If you’re using MySQL in the Amazon cloud, you need to ask yourself this question

5. Protection from early termination

That sounds ominous but it doesn’t have to be. In the world of freelance and consulting, a client can decide they no longer need your services tomorrow.

Why? Perhaps they hired a fulltime resource? Perhaps their needs changed? Perhaps the storm of site outages have passed and the urgency has changed.

Whatever the reason, projects change. If you’ve offered a discount for three months of work, but only end up with one month of work, your full fees may apply. In that case, the deposit should be the discount amount.

Check this: Do managers underestimate operational costs?

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Why Fred Wilson is wrong about Apple

apple_android

If you’ve followed the tech news recently, you may have heard Fred Wilson’s comments about Apple. In essence he believes Apple is too reliant and rooted in hardware, and that hardware isn’t viable in the long term. Mobile hardware, is becoming a commodity.

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To be sure Androids have come a long way, and they may yet improve a lot by 2020 as Fred says. But the aftermarket value of iPhones really does speak volumes. See below.

1. iPhone has never had the best hardware

If you’ve ever watched a Samsung ad, or talked to someone with the phone you probably know this already. Bigger screens, faster processors, first phones with fingerprint readers, or untethered syncing. The list goes on and on.
Also: 5 Cloud ideas that aren’t actually true

Yes Apple is rooted in the hardware business, but not in a way that a commodity can disrupt it. They’re rooted in the hardware business only in as much as it helps them deliver polish. If it helps them deliver a seemless experience, and a device that Jean Luc Picard would appreciate, then they are in that business. . Just “make it so!”.

2. Users are seduced by simplicity

So how is it possible that an inferior piece of hardware could sell more?

Easy. Those users don’t think that way. They aren’t buying hardware. What do I mean?

I would argue many iPhone users buy for the experience, the simplicity, the ease of use. Designers call this User Experience or User Interface, but end users don’t know these terms. What they know is they don’t have a headache. They’re not frustrated trying to move an image from one app to another, or copy/pasting etc.

User interface is that invisible force that just makes everything on the device better. Call it polish, but it’s much more than a pretty face.

Related: Are SQL Databases Dead?

3. Most users don’t care about “open”

Another benefit touted on the Android side is it being “open”. The OS is open-source, and then extended by manufacturers. While this surely brings down costs to them, it may be all be irrelevant to end users and consumers.

Yes open standards are great for competition, great for markets, and ultimately great for users. But Microsoft is a great case study in why consumers often still choose a closed solution.

Read: Do managers underestimate operational costs?

4. Apple is Sexy

That may sound fanboyish, but seriously. Look at the accessories market for blinging your phones.

If that’s not enough, look at the aftermarket value. iPhones retain their value, Samsung’s don’t.

Read: Five things I learned from David Maisterabout trust and advising clients

5. Android is still broken

From where I’m standing, and a lot of experts agree, the Android ecosystem is broken.

For one the AppStore, being historically unregulated, is chock full of malware and dangerous downloads. Most users aren’t computer experts, not good at evaluating security risks, and pay the price.

What’s more many Android phones come stocked with bloatware, slowing down the device, and reducing reliability from day one.

Read: Why the Android ecosystem is broken

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Is Dave Eggers right about the risks of social media?

eggers the circle

I have to admit, though Egger’s is a pretty famous author, I wasn’t familiar with his work. I do however read AVC regularly, the writing of renowned VC & Union Square Ventures partner Fred Wilson. So when one of the commenters pointed to the book as a great read I grabbed a copy on my Kindle.

Flipping through to the back of the book, the further reading section is telling. Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451, DeLillo’s White Noise, Huxley’s Brave New World & Orwell’s 1984 are just a few on the list. All books that I’d read & enjoyed not only for their story, but for their cautious warning of a dystopian future.

The Circle story takes place at a fictional Silicon Valley company “The Circle”, whose campus includes wings such as Old West, Renaissance, Enlightenment, Machine Age & Industrial Revolution. The main character Mae, has just been hired in customer experience. Employees at the circle are all but *required* to socialize together. There everything is ranked, from customer satisfaction, to employee participation, comments, likes, posts & shares.

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I came away with five major themes from the book. As the characters march through the pages, watch them sacrifice their morality, free will & eventually human rights too.

1. social media is like snack food

What I loved most about the story, was how extreme the social media use had become. It was as though every moment had to be captured, every interaction “shared”. And with that, others then comment, favorite, and interact.

But as we found later, social media became something of lesser value. It was like eating snack food, a simulation of real food, missing in nutrients, but masquerading as the real thing. The metaphor holds together well, as we see people become fatigued with Facebook in the real world, and the constant sharing of everything.

Also: Is quality journalism dead? What I learned from Ryan Holiday

2. Egger’s fictional technologies are close at hand

At one point in the story, Mae does a search to find out about her family history. What turns up is more than she bargained for. It turns out that her parents had a rather odd affinity for yearly baccanalian partying, and the photos shock & embarrass Mae.

Turns out some neighbor had scanned a whole shoebox full of photos, and from there the internet crawlers took care of the rest, indexing the photos complete with facial recognition & identification. Once that was complete, a simple search revealed pictures even her parents didn’t know exist.

Facial recognition technologies in fact already exist, though are not widely used quite yet. Governments are obviously beginning to use them for law enforcement, but facebook & google are certainly getting into the act too. What’s more the SeeChange cameras described in the story, parallel Google Glass for example, which is maturing quickly.

Related: Do consultants need to balance conflicts of interest?

3. secrets are a real human need

After Mae begins wearing the SeeChange monocle, everything she does is streamed to an online audience. It begins as an exercise in transparency, but we quickly see the trouble it brings as Mae has no moments of privacy.

In this world, moments of intimacy become shorter & harder to find. And we see then how Mae begins to crave those moments, and they become more precious too.

Check this: Why Oracle won’t kill MySQL

4. monitoring changes our behavior

Much of the monitoring and transparency in the Circle story comes from a new technology called SeeChange, a camera monocle worn around the neck, perhaps paralleling Google Glass that we have all heard of.

Surveillance can surely help prevent crime, or provide evidence after the fact. But one other affect of the technology is in warping people’s natural behavior, as though we are all on a stage, all on camera all the time. In Mae’s case she begins to act for the camera, and those around her do too.

Read: Why devops talent is in short supply

5. how social media warps our sense of time & human scale

Another interesting scene occurs when Mae follows up with a friend via text. Her friend doesn’t respond back, so she sends along another text a few minutes later asking if “everything is ok”. By Mae’s fourth & fifth message, she’s sure she’s been kidnapped, and by the tenth message she’s just angry and declares their friendship is over! All this in the span of 25 minutes.

I think Eggers uses a sort of extreme example, but really to illustrate an important point. In the world of always on communication, these types of misunderstandings are more and more common. Our sense of time changes, and we may feel that others are in slow motion.

Also: Are SQL databases dead?

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If you use MySQL in the Amazon cloud, you need to ask yourself this question

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Are you serious about backups?

If you’re just using Amazon EBS snapshots, that may not be sufficient. There’s a good chance it won’t protect you against your next data loss.

That’s why I like to have a few different types of backups

Also: 5 more things deadly to scalability

Protect against operator error

mysqldump is a tool every DBA is familiar with. Same as a hotbackup or snapshot you say? Just more labor? Not true.

A dump allows you to restore one table, or one schema. That’s why they’re also known as logical backups. What’s more you can edit the file, remove indexes, change object names, or datatypes. All these can be essential in the screwy and unpredictable event of a real world outage.

Expect the unexpected!

Read: Why devops talent is in short supply

Test those backups regularly

If you haven’t actually tried to restore, you really don’t know if you have everything. Did you backup stored procedures & database code? How about grants? Database events? How about cronjobs? What about the my.cnf file? And your replication configuration?

Yes there are a lot of little pieces, and testing your backups by rebuilding everything is an attempt to poke holes in your plan, and hit issues before d-day!

Related: MySQL interview guide for managers and candidates alike

Replication isn’t a backup

Replication is getting better and better in MySQL. It used to fail regularly. MyiSAM was very unpredictable. But even in the comfortable realm of Innodb, there can still be data drift. If you’re on MySQL 5.0 or 5.1, you should consider performing regular checksums. These test the integrity of data and compare what’s actually in master & slave. Bulletproofing MySQL replication with checksums.

Read: Why high availability is so very hard to deliver

Have you considered security around your backup files?

While you’re thinking about backups, make sure the files themselves are secure. Remember they contain your crown jewels. Hopefully individual data that’s sensitive is encrypted, but still you should secure their final resting place as well.

If you’re using S3, consider encrypting the file before shipping it up to the bucket.

Read this: Why a four letter word divides dev and ops

Get more. Grab our exclusive monthly Scalable Startups. We share tips and special content. Our latest Why I don’t work with recruiters