Continuing our discussion of multi-master replication, we hit on five more reasons why writing to two masters aka active-active replication is very dangerous.
Click through to the end for multi-master solutions that work with MySQL.
Reason 6 – You lose transaction isolation
This may sound like a theoretical point to some. But hopefully we can all appreciate that while you’re making changes to your data, you don’t want another user or session with their fingers in the pie, right?
This is implemented in all relational databases, MySQL, Oracle, and SQL Server included as transactions or transactional isolation. While you’re operating on rows they’re locked for other sessions to write to. If they want to do so, they wait in line until you’re done.
In master-master replication, this principal is completely broken. Altough your MySQL instance enforces this on the source side, the second master knows nothing about what you are doing. All of the transactions on that side may do whatever they like to your data.
Let’s give an example:
mysql> select * from a;
| c1 |
| 5 |
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
masterdb1> set autocommit=0;
masterdb1> update a set c1 = c1 + 5;
masterdb2> set autocommit=0;
masterdb2> update a set c1 = c1 * 5;
Depending on the order you commit one side will then have 10 as the value, while the other side has 25! Strange indeed.
There’s no way to prevent a myriad of scenarios like this without locking. That’s why relational database introduced shared and exclusive locks, and that’s what’s missing in active-active multi-master replication.
Isolation is big, it’s serious, and without it you’re doomed!